22nd International Ornithological Congress

Report of the Secretary

Officers and Committees, 1994-1998

Welcome Message from the Honorary President the 22nd IOC

Meetings of the Executive Committee

Meetings of the International Ornithological Committee

Appendix 1: Report of the Chairman of the Scientific Program Committee 1994 - 1998

Appendix 2: Reports of the Standing Committees

Appendix 3: International Ornithological Committee, 1998-2002

Appendix 4: The International Ornithological Committee, Statutes & By-Laws


22nd International Ornithological Congress

Officers and Committees, 1994-1998

Honorary President: Tso-Hsin Cheng (China)

President: Peter Berthold (Germany)

Vice President: Janet Kear (United Kingdom)

Secretary: Walter J. Bock (United States)

Secretary-General: Aldo Berruti (South Africa)

Permanent Executive Committee:

Alexander V. Andreev (Russia); Jacques Blondel (France); Cynthia Carey (U.S.A.); Asha Chandola-Saklani (India); John Dittami (Austria, ex officio); Hiroyuki Morioka (Japan); Manuel Nores (Argentina);   Henri Ouellet (Canada); Christopher M. Perrins (UK ex officio); W. Roy Siegfried (South Africa);  Tomasz Wesolowski (Poland); Murray Williams (New Zealand)

South African National Committee

Aldo Berruti (Durban); Adrian Craig (Grahamstown); Tim Crowe (Cape Town); Ian Emmott (deceased); Alan Kemp (Pretoria, Chair); Richard Liversidge (Kimberley);  Gordon Maclean (Pietermaritzburg); Roy Siegfried (Cape Town);  Les Underhill (Cape Town)

South African Local Committee

Nigel Adams (Durban); David Allan (Durban); Aldo Berruti (Durban, Chair); Sharon Berruti (Durban); Sean Clinning (Durban); Merle Dicks (Durban); Gordon Holtshausen (Durban); Mike Mair (Durban); Jane Meyer (Durban); Steven Piper (Durban); Jean Porter (Durban); Dudley Randall (Durban); Rob Slotow (Durban);  Trevor Snyman (Durban); Hardy Wilson (Durban); Caroline Wood (Durban); Tim Wood (Durban).

Scientific Program Committee

Aldo Berruti (S-G., South Africa); Peter Berthold (President, Germany); Colin Bibby (Great Britain); Walter Bock (Secretary, USA); Christopher Brown (Namibia); Asha Chandola-Saklani (India); Tim Crowe (Vice-chair, South Africa); Dominique Homberger (USA); Lukas Jenni (Chair, Switzerland);  Anders Pape Møller (France);  Yaa Ntiamoa-Baidu (Ghana);   Vladimir Payevsky (Russia);  Fernando Spina (Italy); Les Underhill (South Africa);  Arie van Noordwijk (The Netherlands); John Wingfield (USA)


Nigel Adams (Durban) & Rob Slotow (Durban)

Report of the Secretary

Walter J. Bock



Preparation for the 22nd International Ornithological Congress started shortly after the end of the 20th congress in 1990 when Walter Bock communicated with several South African ornithologists, and especially with Professor Tim Crowe of the FitzPatrick Institute, Cape Town. When it became clear that major positive political changes were going to occur in South Africa in the near future, discussions increased greatly. The suggestion was made by Tim Crowe to Walter Bock that Durban would make an excellent site for a South African congress and that Dr. Aldo Berruti, then at the Durban Natural Science Museum, would be an outstanding Secretary-General. Communications were established between Walter Bock and Aldo Berruti, and a visit for Walter Bock to Durban was arranged for May 1993. Meetings were arranged with the Mayor and City Council of Durban, with representatives of the African National Congress and the Inkata Freedom Party, and with local ornithologists. Hotels and convention facilities (including plans for the new International Convention Centre) were inspected. And visits were made to two Nature Reserves in Kwazulu-Natal to evaluate possibilities for field trips. A visit was arranged to Cape Town to discuss arrangements with ornithologists there, as well as with meeting with representatives of the Southern African Ornithological Society. Aldo Berruti and Walter Bock remained in close contact during the planning and preparation of the official invitation from South Africa for the 22nd International Ornithological Congress, 1998 which was to be proposed at the 21st International Ornithological Congress in Vienna, 1994.

The official invitation was submitted to Professor Christopher Perrins (President, 21st International Ornithological Congress) and Secretary Walter Bock. The South African delegation presented their invitation to the Executive Committee at their first meeting (20 August 1994) at the 1994 congress in Vienna, which discussed it in detail and voted unanimously to accept the South African invitation. This invitation was then presented to the International Ornithological Committee at its first meeting (22 August 1994) which voted unanimously to accept it after a full discussion.

Preparation for the 1998 congress began immediately with the establishment of a Local Committee (and necessary subcommittees) and the Scientific Program Committee under the chair of Dr. Lukas Jenni. The Scientific Program Committee met in South Africa in early October 1995 with Dr. Lukas Jenni (chair) presiding (see below for the report of this committee). Decisions were reached on the basic format of the congress, and on the symposia and their conveners. The SPC agreed to have 10 plenary lectures, including the presidential address, to cover better the ever widening spectrum of research areas in avian biology.

At this meeting, the suggestion was made by Professor Dominique Homberger that a system be established to permit submission of abstracts electronically. This was agreed to by Dr. Aldo Berruti who established a home page for the congress in the World Wide Web, together with the possibility of registering and submitting abstracts by e-mail. This system proved to be most successful and will be continued for future congresses.

It was further suggested that the congress proceedings by published as a CD-ROM disk. This mode of publishing would permit the presentation of full papers of symposia rather than only longer abstracts and would reduce greatly the cost of publishing the congress proceedings. In addition to publishing the congress proceedings electronically, the abstracts would be published as volumes of The Ostrich and the plenary lectures will be published in full as a special volume of The Ostrich.

The 22nd International Ornithological Congress was held in Durban, South Africa 16 - 22 August 1998, at the newly completed International Congress Centre. The facilities at this Conference Centre were unquestionably the best ever offered for an ornithological congress. The Scientific Program of the 22nd Congress included 10 plenary lectures, 51 symposia, 35 round table discussions, 15 sessions of oral presentations with 120 individual presentations and several hundred poster papers. The International Congress Centre is close to the center of the city and hence within easy walking distance of many of the hotels. Because the facilities at the congress centre are so excellent, it was not necessary for members to leave for meals, post letters, do banking and etc. In addition to the scientific part of the congress, an excellent "bird fair" was organized; this was also opened to the general public. Most interesting was that the day after the congress opened, the congress centre was surrounded by concrete road traffic dividers. Many congress members believed that this concrete barrier was to protect the population of Durban from the assembled ornithologists. But we were informed subsequently that this barrier was erected in preparation for the next conference to be held at the centre which was a meeting of non-aligned Nations.

The Welcoming Ceremony for the 22nd International Ornithological Congress was held in the large hall of the International Congress Centre on Sunday, 16 August, at 1800h, followed by a reception. A British Ornithologists' Union Day took place all day on Sunday, 16 August, in which special lectures on ornithology in Africa were presented.

The formal opening of the congress took place in the large hall on Monday, 17 August, at 0830h followed by the Presidential Address. In the evening of the same day at 2000h, two South African Lectures were held in the large hall of the International Congress Centre.

During the opening of the congress, Secretary Walter Bock read the following statement from Professor Cheng Tso-hsin, Honorary President of the 22nd congress. Secretary Bock met Professor Cheng while he was visiting Beijing, China in December 1997 and received his statement of greetings from Professor Cheng at that time. Unfortunately Professor Cheng passed away on 27 June 1998 and was unable to learn the results of the 22nd congress which met several months later, especially that the IOC had voted to hold the 23rd congress in 2002 in Beijing, China. Hosting of an International Ornithological Congress was most important to Professor Cheng in his last years and a crowning achievement of his great work in the development of Chinese ornithology.


Welcome Message from the Honorary President the 22nd IOC

"Dear colleagues and friends throughout the world,

The candle lights, the flower blossoms, the birds sing .... and the 22 International Ornithological Congress celebrates its General Assembly in Durban, South Africa, with every reason to be proud.

It is my privilege and pleasure as Honorary President of the 22nd Congress to write some words for the opening ceremony. Unfortunately, I am now 92 years old and I have to cut down all my traveling as much as I would have liked to visit Durban and the 22nd International Ornithological Congress, but I will not be able to do so.

Ornithology has won great success in the zoological field but there is still a great deal to be done. Furthermore an interest in birds always seems to lead to an interest in conservation. This results in birds as well as wildlife being much better preserved and increased which makes the globe on which we live more beautiful and colorful. In order to share this contribution for birds, the IOC has always strengthened the mutual exchange of information and cooperation through bilateral and multilateral relationships.

During this age in which we are now living at the door to the 21st century and which can quite well be called the age of the life sciences, we must work for the happiness of our birds and our generation, and even more for future generations.

May I take this opportunity to wish the 22nd International Ornithological Congress a very fruitful and successful worldwide convention."

Cheng Tso-hsin

Academician, The Chinese Academy of Sciences; Honorary President, China Ornithological Society; Honorary President, 22nd International Ornithological Congress

The congress Open Day took place on Thursday, 20 August, with bus tours to many locations around Durban followed by a South African braai (i.e., barbecue) evening at the International Congress Centre.

A Birds and Birding Fair was open to members of the congress and to the public during the entire week. Books on birds, merchandise associated with scientific ornithology and recreational birding, and gifts were available for purchase. A large series of early morning birding trips in and around Durban were available to congress members, as were a number of daily general interest tours, half day and full day tours for congress members and accompanying members.

The congress ended with a formal Closing Ceremony in the large hall on Saturday, 22 August, at 1830h, followed by an excellent Banquet held in a large tent set up on the grounds of the International Congress Centre. A heavy rain fell during the banquet which fulfilled the slogan of the congress "Making rain for global and African ornithology." The tent did not quite keep out all the water, with cascades occurring at several places where separate segments came together. But no one got wet, and an excellent time was had by all.

A full series of pre- and post-congress tours were organized and enjoyed by many members of the congress, including tours to many Nature Reserves within KwaZulu-Natal Province and longer tours to many sites widely distributed over all of southern Africa.

Meetings of the Executive Committee

The Executive Committee (EC) held several meetings during the 22nd Congress, the first being an all day meeting on Sunday, 16 August, then a series of noon meetings on 17,18 and 19 August and an evening meeting on Wednesday, 19 August. Attendance varied somewhat at these meetings, but with the exception of Jacques Blondel (France), Manuel Nores (Argentina) and Henri Ouellet (Canada) who unfortunately were unable to attend the congress, all members of the Executive Committee attended these meetings. A brief meeting was held at noon on Saturday, 22 August to introduce the new members of the Executive Committee for the period 1998 - 2002.

A) The first meeting opened with short reports from the President, Secretary-General and Secretary with requests for any additional items not listed on the agenda for discussion by the EC.

B) An amendment to the Statutes to add to the requirements for members of the International Ornithological Committee to have attended at least one congress by the time of their election was approved to be forwarded to the IOC for their approval. Several members of the EC recalled that such an amendment was offered and approved by the IOC at the 1996 congress in Ottawa, but if so, it was not recorded in the official reports of the congress. This amendment was discussed at the meeting of the EC during the 1994 Vienna congress, but it could not be introduced then because petitions to introduce amendments to the Statutes and By-Laws have to be submitted prior to the congress. In any case, this requirement for membership in the IOC was basically followed at the past two congresses. An amendment to the By-laws to increase the number of members of the IOC from the current limit of 175 to 200 was approved to be forwarded to the IOC for their action.

C) Nominations for officers for the IOC and for 23rd International Ornithological Congress were discussed. President Berthold had contacted all members of the Executive Committee for their suggestions for the several positions to be filled, and after having received these suggestions, he circulated a list of names for each position, and obtained agreement on this list. However, some objections were raised to this procedure, and a lengthy discussion followed. At the end of this deliberation, it was suggested that a different procedure be developed for nomination of officers of future congresses. This procedure will be the establishment of a nominating committee chaired by the immediate Past-President which will propose nominations for the officers and elected members of the Executive Committee. These nominations will be reported to the Executive Committee prior to the next congress and acted on by the EC at its first meeting at the next congress. Finally the EC voted to present to the IOC the original panel of nominations for officers for the IOC for the term 1998 - 2002.

D) A delegation of Chinese ornithologists under the leadership of Professor Xu Wei-shu presented their invitation to host the 23rd International Ornithological Congress, 2002, in Beijing, China. After its presentation, this invitation was discussed fully by the members of the EC and the Chinese ornithologists. Then a delegation of Israeli ornithologists under the leadership of Professor Yossi Lesham presented their invitation to host the 23rd congress in Jerusalem, Israel. Again, following its presentation, this invitation was discussed fully by members of the Ec and the Israeli ornithologists. Walter Bock reported that he had had the opportunity to visit both countries and inspect the congress site and hotels, and to discuss the congress invitation in detail with both groups of ornithologists. He stated that the facilities for both invitations were excellent and that he believed that both groups of ornithologists would be able to prepare and run an excellent congress. If the 23rd congress in 2002 was to be in China, then Professor Xu would be nominated to serve as Secretary-General, if it was to be in Israel, then Professor Lesham would be nominated Secretary-General. A central theme of an congress in Israel would be based on the major migration of large birds through this country under the slogan "Birds know no boundaries." Every effort would be made by the Israeli ornithologists to secure the cooperation of ornithologists in neighboring countries of the Near East. A central theme of an congress in China would be Asian ornithology with emphasis on nature conservation.

Questions were asked of both delegations about visas for congress members to visit their countries. Visas for both countries are still required for citizens from a number of countries, but no problems were foreseen for any congress members to obtain a visa. Members of both delegations gave their assurance that they would oversee this matter personally if any visa difficulties arose. A second problem, that security for congress members was raised and discussed. No problems of security were foreseen.

After a detailed and full discussion, the EC voted to forward both invitations to the IOC without a definite recommendation for either invitation.

E) A number of problems associated with congress organization, exchange of information, and organization of the IOC were then discussed, as followed:

1) The EC approved the policy established at the last congress that greater responsibility and authority should be given to the Scientific Program Committee for the overall organization and the detailed decisions on the content of the scientific program of the congress following the single meeting of this committee held usually three years prior to the congress, and recommended that this policy be continued for the 23rd congress. However, it was suggested that the meeting of the SPC to establish the general format of the scientific program and decision on plenary lectures and symposia be held later that the fall of the year following the congress. With the use of electronic communication, and the establishment of a congress home page, some of the reasons for an earlier meeting of the SPC have disappeared. Hence it was suggested that the meeting of the SPC be about mid-year, two years prior to the next congress, that is, in June 2000 for the 2002 congress. The SPC would continue to have responsibility for much of the detailed work of developing the scientific program rather than having this work left to the Secretary-General and local committee.

2) Timing of deadlines for applications for a place on the program, including contributed papers and round table discussions, as well as other deadlines for symposia abstracts, etc. should be reconsidered by the SPC and the Local Committee. The timing should be as late as possible depending on the requirements of the S-G and the Local committee. A later deadline date would allow congress members to include their most recent work in the abstract, and thereby, to make the abstracts more informative and realistic.

3) A major problem developed for the 22nd congress in that many ornithologists submitted abstracts for contributed papers which were published, but these members did not appear at the congress to present their contributions. This was especially noticeable for the posters with numerous blank positions. The Local Committee had considerable expenses in publishing the abstracts and renting the poster stands. It was recommended strongly that for future congresses, a significant registration fee be charged for submitting abstracts which will cover the costs of publishing the abstract and presenting the contribution. This abstract registration fee will then be deducted from the congress registration fee when the member registers for the congress.

4) Communications between IOC members and the officers, including the Secretary-General, by regular post has proven to be rather costly, as well as having a low response from IOC members. Hence it was strongly recommended that in the future, as much communication as possible be done electronically. The IOC will establish a home page in addition to the home page of the congress with links between the two. Further, as much as possible, e-mail communication be used between officers, the members of the EC and the members of the IOC. All members of the IOC are urged strongly to establish e-mail addresses wither through their institution or privately.

5) A general problem continues to exist on expenses of the IOC during intercongress periods, on other costs of the IOC not directly related to congresses, and on funding travel and other congress costs of members from developing countries, etc., who have difficulties in raising money to attend the congress. Funding problems also exist for Local Committees for early expenses incurred prior to collecting registration fees. This is a most serious problem and one that should not be left to the S-G and local committee of each congress as has been done in the past. It is urged that a special committee be established to investigate the question of raising such funds. In addition allocation of funds to attend ornithological congresses should not be left only to the decision of the S-G and the Local Committee, but should have input from the IOC through its EC. It was urged that a Financial Committee be established to inquire into possible ways of raising funds, and the necessary changes in the Statutes of the International Ornithological Committee to deal with such funds.

6) The system of nominating new members for the International Ornithological Committee must still be improved. It is urged strongly that this process be done strictly under the Statutes which state that new members can be nominated only prior to a congress by existing members of the IOC. Further, it is still necessary to obtain some idea of the relative ornithological activity in different countries which is required under the Statutes to establish representation of different countries on the IOC.

7) Relationships with BirdLife International (the former ICBP) and the IOC, including the ornithological congress, are still in need of improvement. It is no longer necessary to arrange connections between the timing of the International Ornithological congress and the four year meetings of BirdLife International because these latter meetings have been given up. However, it may still be advantageous to establish closer ties between the International Ornithological Committee and BirdLife International. Moreover, with the giving up of the four year meetings of BI, the Scientific Program Committee is urged to broaden the scientific program of the IOC to include more contributions on avian conservation.

8) Difficulties of individual members obtaining visas and/or travel funds. Hence it is urged that the Local Committees of future congresses develop a system of issuing to potential members letters of invitation to attend the congress as requested. Although such letters are unnecessary as all avian biologists are invited to attend the International Ornithological Congresses, such letters are needed by some workers in applying for travel funds. Requests for these letters of invitation are sometimes not fulfilled or delayed. Requests for letters of invitation should be dealt with immediately, and should include instructions for getting visas. Moreover these letters should include a definite statement from the International Union of Biological Sciences requirement regarding freedom of travel for all biologists interested in attending congress held under its auspices. Further, these "Official invitations" should not contain any statements on support or lack of support for travel and attendance at the congress which could result in difficulties for the congress members from consulates of the host country.

It is suggested that a general letter of invitation be sent out to potential members of the next congress as soon as each ornithologist writes to the Secretary-General and expresses interest in registering for the congress. The Secretary will assist the S-G of the next congress to develop such a letter which could be put in a computer file and sent out as soon as the potential member's name and address is inserted into the computer.

E) Possible invitations for the 24th congress in 2006 were discussed. Walter Bock reported that he has continued to make attempts to interest ornithologists from Neotropical countries to consider issuing an invitation for the 24th congress, but with no success. These discussions will continue. In addition, it is suggested that it is time to consider another congress in North America because by 2006, 20 years will have passed since the congress in Ottawa (1986) and 34 years since that in Ithaca (1962). Instructions were issued to the next Secretary to look into possible invitations from a Neotropical country (or combination of several countries) or from North America.

A detailed set of instructions on the preparation of an invitation for an International Ornithological Congress is available for any interested ornithologists from Walter Bock. Any ornithologists interested in submitting an invitation for the 24th or 25th congresses should contact the Secretary immediately. It is also recommend that any group of ornithologists interested in preparing a congress invitation should arrange a visit by the IOC Secretary to their country as early as possible to discuss details of developing an invitation, to examine potential congress sites, meet with the core group of ornithologists, and with governmental and business leaders as possible. Such a visit is quite critical for the successful development of a congress invitation and to avoid later problems.

F) Nominations for Elected Members of the Executive Committee for the periods 1998 - 2002 followed. The problem is that the uneven election and hence retirement of Elected Members of the Executive Committee that came into being at the Christchurch congress (1990) still exists. A slate of nominations for officers and members of the EC was agreed on. This slate will be presented to the IOC at their second meeting.

G) Nominations of new members of the IOC. A committee chaired by Professor Cynthia Carey (United States) was established to gather names of nominees for the IOC. Special attention was given to countries not represented in the IOC. Secretary Bock provided information of IOC members who passed the age of 65 years or have resigned for various reasons.

Professor Carey presented the report of her committee, and the names of proposed members were discussed. After discussion of nominations, a list of names were agreed upon to present to the IOC.

H) With its work at the 21st International Ornithological Congress completed, the meetings of the Executive Committee were adjourned.

Meetings of the International Ornithological Committee

The International Ornithological Committee (IOC) held two evening meetings during the 22nd congress, the first on Tuesday, 18 August, and the second on Friday, 21 August. These meetings were well attended. President Peter Berthold (Germany) chaired both meetings.

A) Brief reports were presented by the President Peter Berthold, Secretary-General Aldo Berruti, Dr. Lukas Jenni, Chair of the Scientific Program Committee (see below) and Secretary Walter Bock.

Suggestions were made by Dr. Lukas Jenni on the content and timing of instructions to symposium conveners. The instructions have to be more detailed and firmer, and should be sent 1 - 2 years before the congress rather than 3 years. It was also mentioned that the congress proceedings were to be published as a CD-ROM, and that it will include full manuscripts of all symposia papers.

Secretary Walter Bock pointed out the need to send official invitation to all potential congress members which are often essential for ornithologists in obtaining travel funds, and suggested that this be done automatically by the Secretary-General.

B) President Peter Berthold asked IOC members to stand in memorial while he read the names of IOC members and other internationally known ornithologists who died since the 1994 congress. These are:

Roger Tory Peterson (United States of America), a member of the IOC and who will be remembered for his innovating field guides of birds which revolutionized bird identification and perhaps more than anything else were responsible for the increase in world-wide interest in birds and for making "hobby-ornithology" a major international industry.

Professor George M. Dunnet (United Kingdom) of the University of Aberdeen in September 1995, a member of the IOC.

Robert Cunningham-van-Someren (Kenya) of Karen, Nairobi for many years a leading ornithologist in East Africa, a member of the IOC

Richard Brooke (South Africa) of the FitzPatrick Institute, Cape Town who was much interested in this first ornithological congress in Africa and would have liked to be here with us.

Professor Charles G. Sibley (United States of America), a member of the IOC, Secretary-General of the 13th Congress in Ithaca, New York, the first one outside of Europe, and President of the 20th Congress in Christchurch, New Zealand and well known for his work in avian systematics.

Professor Cheng, Tso-hsin (China) on 27 June 1998, a member of the IOC and the Honorary President of the 22nd Congress in Durban and responsible for the great development of Chinese ornithology during this century which resulted in the acceptance by the IOC of the Chinese invitation to host the 23rd Congress in Beijing, China.

Dr. Henri Ouellet (Canada) on 10 January 1999, member of the IOC and the Secretary-General of the 19th Congress in Ottawa, Canada, the congress which established the organizational format for the modern ornithological congresses.

C) The Executive Committee reported one proposed change to Article II(3) of the Statutes to include the statement that: "Nominees for membership in the IOC must have attended at least one International Ornithological Congress which may be the one at which they are elected." and to Article I of the By-laws to increase the membership of the IOC from 175 to 200. This increase would take effect only after the close of the 22nd congress and hence has to be passed at this congress to have sufficient places available to elect IOC members from additional countries at the 2002 congress. The proposed amendments in the Statutes and the By-laws was passed by the IOC.

D) The Executive Committee presented its nominations for officers for the 2002 congress, as follows:

Honorary President:  Ernst Sutter (Switzerland)

President:  Walter J. Bock (United States)

Vice President:  Jacques Blondel (France)

Secretary:  Dominique G. Homberger (U.S.A.)

These persons were requested to leave the hall. Following a discussion, the IOC voted to accept these nominations for officers of the 2002 congress.

E) The two invitations for the 23rd congress in 2002 were presented by the Professor Xu, Wei-shu for China and by Professor Yossi Lesham for Israel. IOC members had the opportunity to ask questions of members of both delegations. Then the delegations from both countries were asked to leave the hall so that a full and frank discussion could be held about both invitations. The Executive Committee did not offer a recommendation for either invitation. The vote was in the form of voting for either the Chinese invitation or the Israeli invitation. The vote was strongly in favor of the Chinese invitation. Hence the 23rd congress in 2002 will be the first International Ornithological Congress to be held in Asia, and will take place in late August 2002.

F) Secretary Walter Bock reported on his activities with respect to invitations for the 24rd congress in 2006. Although he made a number of attempts to interest ornithologists from some country in the Neotropics to host an ornithological congress, these were without success. The suggestion was made to consider the 24th congress in North America, and most likely in the United States. Possibly it will be possible to hold the 25th congress in 2010 in a Neotropical country. Any ornithologists interested in developing an invitation for the 2006 or the 2010 congress should contact Secretary Dominique Homberger without delay. A detailed set of instructions on organizing ornithological congresses and preparing invitations is available and can be obtained from Secretary Homberger.

[The first meeting of the IOC was adjourned at this point, with the second meeting scheduled for the evening of 21 August.]

G) The EC reported on its discussions on the establishment of an Endowment Fund to support members attending future congresses. It was emphasized that Local Committees could not be expected to raise these funds, and that having to raise travel funds for congress members could be a barrier for ornithologists in many countries to consider hosting a congress. Some suggestions were made on international agencies that could provide travel funds. It was urged that the president of the 22nd congress appoint a committee to explore the possibilities of establishing an Endowment Fund and to approach potential donors. Secretary Walter Bock pointed out that to date the work of officers and members of the IOC had been on a strictly voluntary basis with these persons using university, research and other funds to cover whatever expenses they incurred. The IOC itself does not have any funds or a budget. If an Endowment Fund was established, it would be essential for the IOC to establish itself as a non-profit organizations under the tax laws of some country. Moreover, Secretary Bock pointed out that there were no provisions in the Statutes and By-Laws to authorize the establishment of an Endowment Fund or to establish the IOC as a non-profit organization. He moved that the IOC give the officers and the EC the necessary authorization to take whatever steps were necessary to establish the IOC as a non-profit organization and to establish an Endowment Fund. The necessary changes in the Statutes will be acted on during the IOC meeting the 23rd congress. This motion was seconded and passed.

H) The Executive Committee presented its nominations for elected members of the Executive Committee for the period 1998 - 2002, as follows: Alexander V. Andreev (Russia); Carlos Bosque* (Venezuela); Michael Clarke* (Australia); Fred Cooke* (Canada); John P. Croxall* (United Kingdom); Nathan N. Gichuki* (Kenya); Hiroyoshi Higuchi* (Japan); Lukas Jenni* (Switzerland); Pilai Poonswad* (Thailand); John C. Wingfield* (U.S.A.). Members elected for the first term are marked with an *. These nominations for the Executive Committee were elected by vote of the IOC.

In addition, Aldo Berruti (South Africa), Peter Berthold (Germany), and Xu, Wei-shu (China) and the current officers of the IOC, President Walter J. Bock (U.S.A.), Vice President Jacques Blondel (France) and Secretary Dominique G. Homberger (U.S.A.) will serve as ex officio members on the Executive Committee.

I) Presentations were made for the establishment of new Standing committees. Proposals were received by the Executive Committee for three new Standing Committees on Avian Anatomical Nomenclature, Raptor Study, and Ringing. Other Standing Committees may be established in the next years.

J) The Executive Committee presented its nominations for new members of the International Ornithological Committee based on the work of the Nomination Committee chaired by Professor Cynthia Carey (United States). The following persons were nominated: William Buttemer (Australia), Walter Boles (Australia), Michael Clarke (Australia), John Temple Lang (Belgium), Elizabeth Hoefling (Brazil), Alan John Baker (Canada), David Bird (Canada), Lei Fumin (China), Zhang Zhengwang (China), Stanislav Burse (Czech Republic), Franz Bairlein (Germany), Katrin Böhning-Gaese (Germany), Andreas Helbig (Germany), J. Matthias Starck (Germany), Dinesh Bhatt (India), Parimal Ch. Bhattacharjee (India), Ken Ishida (Japan), Hiroshi Nakamura (Japan), Masaru Wada (Japan), Dashnamjilyn Batdelger (Mongolia), Arie Johannes van Noordwijk (Netherlands), Theunis Piersma (Netherlands), John Cockrem (New Zealand), Chris J.R. Robertson (New Zealand), Claus Bech (Norway), Przemyslaw Busse (Poland), Anton Kristin (Slovakia Republic), Morné du Plessis (South Africa), Les Underhill (South Africa), Jan Ekman (Sweden), Henrik Smith (Sweden), Johann Hegelbach (Switzerland), Mercedes Foster (United States), Patricia Gowaty (United States), Marilyn Ramenofsky (United States), Terry Root (United States). After a lengthy discussion centered on the method by which new members of the IOC are nominated and presented at the meeting of the IOC, these nominations were elected to the IOC. The new members of the International Ornithological Committee are to be congratulated, and will be notified of their election as soon as possible after the end of the congress.

Because of having the list of nominations presented to the IOC at the second meeting of this body and having to have the election at that meeting, members argued that this procedure did not provide them with sufficient time to raise any comments about any of the nominees. The lateness of the presentation of nominations for the IOC resulted from the requirement that the Executive Committee has to act on the report of the Nominating Committee before forwarding the nominations to the IOC. It was proposed that the Executive Committee act sooner on the report of the committee gathering nominations for the IOC, and that the list of proposed nominations be presented to the IOC at their first meeting for their consideration. This will provide IOC members time to present their comments to the Executive Committee before the EC prepares its final list. Election of the new members of the IOC will remain at the second meeting of the IOC during a congress.

With its work at the 22nd International Ornithological Congress completed, the meetings of the International Ornithological Committee were adjourned.

Respectfully submitted for the International Ornithological Committee:

Walter J. Bock

Secretary, IOC.


Appendix 1


Members of the Committee

Aldo Berruti (S-G, South Africa); Lukas Jenni (Chair, Switzerland); Peter Berthold (President, Germany); Anders Pape Møller (France); Colin Bibby (Great Britain); Yaa Ntiamoa-Baidu (Ghana); Walter Bock (Secretary, USA); Vladimir Payevsky (Russia); Christopher Brown (Namibia); Fernando Spina (Italy); Asha Chandola-Saklani (India); Les Underhill (South Africa); Tim Crowe (Vicechair, South Africa); Arie van Noordwijk (The Netherlands); Dominique Homberger (USA); John Wingfield (USA).

Yaa Ntiamoa-Baidu (Ghana) was unable to attend the meeting due to illness which was greatly regretted.


In October 1994, the first announcement was distributed to the members of the EC and to about 16 ornithological journals for publication. This announcement included the date and place of the venue, the names of the officials and of all members of the SPC as well as the deadline for submitting symposia proposals which was set for 31 August 1995. Further announcements were distributed by the organizers and were published in ornithological journals.

Questionnaire to the members of the IOC

In order to learn more about how participants feel about the structure of the congress program and the changes made for the Vienna Congress, I decided to make an inquiry among the members of the International Ornithological Committee (IOC). A questionnaire with 7 questions was sent to all members of the IOC and the members of the SPC in November 1994.

The 125 (62%) questionnaires returned allowed a detailed analysis of the opinions of a (biased?) sample of congress participants. The results of the analysis were summarized in a report which was distributed to the members of the SPC and used by the SPC when setting up the schedule of this Congress. An analysis of the responses to this questionnaire was presented as a poster at the congress (see the abstract volume of poster presentations for a summary).

Meeting of the SPC in 1995

The SPC met in Durban from 5 - 7 October 1995 for its only meeting. The SPC met the local organizing committee, representatives of the Conference Centre, the mayor of Durban and the senior management of the Durban Natural Science Museum. The SPC was introduced to the new International Convention Centre in Durban by floor plans and detailed explanations, and visited the building site.

The main part of the meeting was devoted to a two days extensive and detailed discussion of the scientific program. Decisions were taken about the format and time table of the scientific program in general and the different forms of presentations. It was decided to have a half hour opening on the first full day and, otherwise, to have the same format for each full day to facilitate the orientation of the delegates. The plenary speakers and the symposia were selected. A time-table of the planning of the congress was established and future tasks of the SPC were determined. The minutes of the meeting were distributed to the members of the SPC and the EC.

Plenary Lectures

As for the Vienna congress, the SPC decided to have the presidential address plus nine plenary lectures, in order to more fully represent the achievements in the various fields of ornithology. The nine plenary speakers were selected at the SPC meeting and invited by the President. A number of potential replacement speakers was also determined. Together with the presidential address, the plenaries were intended to bring the community of congress attendants together at the beginning of every half-day for an outstanding contribution.

Plenary speakers were kept informed with three circulars. The chairpersons introducing the plenary speakers were selected among the past-president (introducing the president), the vice-president and the members of the SPC.


At the SPC meeting, it was decided that symposia should present review papers integrating ideas and findings aimed at the general ornithologist, rather than single specialized studies. Symposia presentations were planned to keep to a common time schedule in order to facilitate commuting among symposia. Conveners were asked to ensure a wide international representation of their speakers.

The following rules were set up for authors. One person was allowed to give only one symposium talk as a first author. Likewise, one person was allowed to act as convener or co-convener in only one symposium. However, one person could be a convener in one symposium (without presenting a talk) and a speaker in another symposium. Symposium speakers and conveners could in addition submit a poster, oral communication or round table discussion. There was hardly any problem in upholding these rules and they were relaxed in only one exceptional case.

At the SPC meeting, 45 symposia were selected out of 71 received at that time and 5 slots were kept open. They were filled in later by newly emerging submissions, which resulted in a total of 51 symposia accepted. The symposia conveners were informed about the decision taken by the SPC and invited to confirm their willingness to convene the submitted symposium. Contacts with the symposia conveners was kept up with a total of eight circulars (two distributed by the editors of the proceedings). They informed the conveners about the format and deadlines for the submission of abstracts and papers for the proceedings as well as other congress matters. Special care was taken to have a correct list and sequence of speakers of each symposium. Additional questions and problems as well as changes in the list of speakers asked for much correspondence between the chairman and the conveners.

Round Table Discussions

At the SPC meeting, it was agreed that RTD's must not be organized as symposia but should be discussions guided by the convener along a list of questions. During the RTD, the convener or the two conveners should give a short 2-3 min introduction and then guide the discussion along the lines shown at the wall. It was recommended that conveners should informally invite participants to ensure a good discussion. Chairpersons of standing committees were asked to organize their meetings within the frame of a RTD. All RTD submissions were accepted and two pairs of RTD's were asked to be combined. Given the high number of RTD's, it was later decided to have part of the RTD's during two evenings of the congress.

Contributed papers

At the SPC meeting, it was decided to have poster presentations as well as oral communications of 15 minutes. All poster presentations were accepted, provided that the length of the abstract met the basic rules. One person was allowed to submit only one poster presentation as a first author. Poster sessions were felt to be important and to deserve a time slot each working day.

Persons submitting a poster could ask for presenting their poster as an oral communication instead of a poster. Submissions rejected as oral communications were automatically accepted as posters. A total of 471 submissions for oral communications were received. For each of 10 subject areas, members of the SPC reviewed the abstracts and classified them into 4 categories (first choice, second choice, optional, last choice). In order to ensure that criteria were applied equally in all subject areas, I reviewed all abstracts. Based on these evaluations and taking special care to include a wide geographical representation, 120 oral communications and 62 replacements were selected. In 24 cases, replacement speakers had to be asked to give an oral communication because a speaker withdrew or did not confirm his participation. The editors of the congress proceedings received and edited all abstracts and accomplished all correspondence with the authors of contributed papers. Some members of the SPC helped with editing the abstracts.

Collaboration with the members of the SPC and with the organizers

A clear separation of responsibilities and tasks on the one hand and a very close cooperation and strong commitment on the other hand between the SPC and the Secretary-General with his teams were the key for the successful accomplishment of our work. The majority of the tasks have been defined and scheduled at the SPC meeting in Durban which left only a few matters to be decided afterwards between the chairman of the SPC and the Secretary-General. The tasks of the SPC were to set up the general format of the congress and to decide on the types of presentations. The SPC also selected the plenary speakers and symposia, evaluated submissions for oral communications and helped with editing the abstracts. The chairman of the SPC in addition reviewed the RTD submissions, did the final selection of oral communications, accomplished the correspondence with plenary speakers, symposia and RTD conveners, and scheduled the events. On the other hand, the collection of abstracts and their editing as well as all matters concerning the proceedings were in the hands of the Secretary-General and the editors.

I thank all members of the SPC for the constructive collaboration in a very friendly atmosphere. I was fortunate to have an efficient and amicable relationship with the Secretary-General Aldo Berruti and with the editors of the abstract volumes and the proceedings Nigel Adams and Rob Slotow. I thank all three and their teams for a very close cooperation. I greatly benefitted from the many years of experience of the president Peter Berthold and the secretary Walter Bock. I thank both of them for their friendly and constructive help. I also thank Elisabeth Wiprächtiger for her help at the Swiss Ornithological Institute.


Electronic mail proved to be the main means of communication, and incoming and outgoing correspondence from the chairman of the SPC greater than 2000 mailings. Communication became very easy and rapid, especially with authors from distant countries that formerly needed several weeks to reach by postal mail. Electronic mail, however, also had the effect that last minute submissions and long overdue responses were an all too common phenomena.

These new developments in both communication and behavior of scientists call for reviewing the time schedule of planning future congresses. The longer before the congress symposia and abstracts have to be submitted, the higher is the number of submissions after the deadline, the lower is the response rate and the more likely are changes in the list of speakers of symposia. Therefore, I suggest to set deadlines as late as possible, but with a safety margin and conforming with the time schedule of the Secretary-General and the local organizers. In the case of this congress, I felt that the deadline for submitting symposia was too early, considering the fact that it takes an appreciable time until announcements are published in scientific journals and noticed by readers.

The format of the scientific program will have to be reconsidered for each congress. Although an ornithological congress is limited taxonomically to avian studies, it is very diverse in topics and a suitable balance in the number of simultaneous presentations has to be scheduled.

Although the scientific program committee is not directly involved with the publication of congress proceedings (this is the decision of the Secretary-General), the kind of proceedings planned affects the work of the SPC. More and more authors are reluctant to present original data if they have to publish them in congress proceedings, because articles are time-consuming to prepare and because papers in congress proceedings generally gain lower publication merits than articles in scientific journals. This may affect the quality of future ornithological congresses, because the personal publication record is increasingly a main weapon in the competition for funds and because other smaller meetings may be more successful in attracting excellent speakers presenting their most interesting data by concentrating on a specific topic of current interest and by publishing their proceedings as part of a recognized scientific journal.

Submitted by Dr. Lukas Jenni: Chairman of the Scientific Program Committee

Swiss Ornithological Institute, CH - 6204 Sempach, Switzerland; Tel: +41-41-462 97 00, Fax: +41-41-462 97 10, e-mail: jennil@orninst.ch


Appendix 2


Standing committee: Ornithological Nomenclature

The Standing Committee on Ornithological Nomenclature is the oldest standing committee within the IOC, being organized at the 1950 congress in Uppsala as a result of the congress presentation by Professor F. Salomonson on the nomenclatural problem associated with the generic name Colymbus Linnaeus, 1758. Colonel Richard Meinertzhagen was the first chair of this committee. This committee was reappointed after the 1954 Basel congress with Professor Erwin Stresemann as chair. The SCON serves to review nomenclatural questions associated with avian names, to assist ornithologists in preparing applications to the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature and to serve as a specialist committee on matters of ornithological nomenclature for the ICZN. Walter Bock, who has served as chair of the SCON since 1981 following the death of the then chair, Eugene Eisenmann, was elected as a commissioner of the ICZN in October, 1988 and serves as the liaison between the SCON and the ICZN.

1. Present. Professor Walter J. Bock and Dr. Richard Schodde (co-chairs), 23 members and IOC delegates.

2. The New Edition (ed.4) of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature.

As a member on the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, Professor Bock reported on the imminent publication of a new edition of the Code, ratified at the 1996 meeting of the International Commission on Biological Sciences, Budapest. The new edition was expected to appear in October-November this year, with its rules taking effect from 1 January 2000. Changes affecting ornithological nomenclature will be the introduction of a cut-off date for all unused senior synonyms; all such names published before 1900 will be deemed unavailable. To become available, moreover, all family-group names will have to be supported by a description. A proposal for the combining of the nomenclatural rules for plants and animals under a common unified Code was not approved by the Commissioners. The issue of agreement in gender between generic and specific names, required under the Code, was left unresolved among members of the SCON. In general, the recommended course was to follow existing usage.

3. Establishment of a List of Available Family-group Names for Birds.

The requirement that, to be available, all family-group names must be supported by a description posed problems for the list of family-group names published by Professor Bock in 1994. Many of its more recent names, notably those published as new by Hans Wolters in his major classifications and by Sibley, Ahlquist & Monroe in 1988 and elsewhere, would become nomina nuda under this rule. It was agreed that Professor Bock would remove all undescribed family-group names of birds from his list, together with any submissions from delegates present, validate them with descriptions, and apply to the Commission on Zoological Nomenclature to approve the amended list as a list of available family-group for birds.

4. Delays and other Problems with the ICZN Secretariat in dealing with Submissions from the SCON.

Professor Bock and Dr. Schodde reported on the frustrations of getting satisfactorily prepared nomenclatural applications from the SCON through the ICZN secretariat into publication in the Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature. All four submissions from the Vienna meeting of the SCON were submitted to the ICZN secretariat in early 1996. By August 1998, only one had been published and no advice was at hand on the fate of the others, despite reminders to the Secretariat. Even worse was the case for conservation of the generic name Cacatua for the white cockatoos. This had been voted on and approved by the Commission in the 1960s, but was then stalled by the secretariat over the designation of the type species. The impasse was finally sorted out by Professor Bock and Dr Schodde immediately after the 1990 meeting of the SCON in New Zealand, but the secretariat subsequently lost the manuscript, did not find it again until 1997 (after several reminders) and then proceeded to completely re-edit it, making a series of basic errors of fact and nomenclature in the process. The matter has now been solved - but only after delays, reminders and many corrections that should never have had to be made.

The meeting agreed that Professor Bock would prepare a letter on behalf of the SCON to be sent to the President of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, informing him of the unsatisfactory performance of the Secretariat, and asking him to take action to ensure that it takes prompt and effective action on SCON applications in the future. A copy would be circulated as a guide to members (Allan Knox, Neil Mutton) who had offered to write independently to the President of the Commission on this issue.

5. Comprehensive List of Available Generic Names for Birds.

No progress had been made on this project since the 1994 meeting in Vienna. Professor Bock canvassed alternative assistance for the work, given the non-productivity of the compiler who had opted to take on the task of bringing together all names in a computer file. A base-line list for checking could be made available by scanning into software the generic names in "Peters'" Check-list of Birds of the World, Wolters' Die Vogelarten der Erde, and the Sibley & Monroe compilations of the birds of the world.

6. Standard List of Scientific Names for Birds.

This issue was discussed without direction from the floor and without reaching conclusion. What arose was a general feeling for the need to have published, in software form, a compendium that would correlate the different names for the same or equivalent taxa in the world lists of species in "Peters", Wolters and Sibley & Monroe (see item 5 above). Whether a standard list should appear under the aegis of the IOC was an issue opened for suggestion from members between now and the next Congress.

7. New Members of the SCON

Membership of the SCON had dropped with the retirement of Gerlof Mees, the recent death of Henri Ouellet, and the aging of several other members. The floor was opened for replacements, with nominations coming for Siegfried Eck (Germany) and Per Alstrom (Sweden) who were not present. The President of the IOC would invite Eck and Alstrom to join on the understanding that they would be able to attend future Congresses. Allan Knox, who was present, was also asked but declined. With Walter Bock becoming President of the 23rd congress, Dr. Richard Schodde was asked to serve as chair of the SCON.

Members of the Standing Committee on Ornithological Nomenclature for the 1998-2002 period (those names indicated with an * were present at the Durban congress) are:

Per Alstrom (Sweden) Alan P. Peterson (USA); Walter J. Bock (USA)*; Murray D. Bruce (Australia)*; Siegfried Eck (Germany); Richard Schodde, Chair (Australia)*; David Holyoak (United Kingdom); L. S. Stepanyan (Russia); Ernst Mayr (USA); Dr. Carlo Violani (Italy); Hiroyuki Morioka (Japan)*; Karel H. Voous (Netherlands)

Respectfully submitted to the International Ornithological Committee for the Standing Committee for Ornithological Nomenclature :

Walter J. Bock and Richard Schodde, Co-Chairs, Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, 1200 Amsterdam Avenue, Mail Box 5521, New York, NY 10027, U.S.A. <wb4@columbia.edu>, and Australian National Wildlife Collection, CSIRO, Division of Wildlife and Ecology, P.O. Box 84, Lyneham, A.C.T. 2602, Australia <Richard.Schodde@dwe.csiro.au>

Standing Committee on Applied Ornithology

A) Report of the Executive

The SCAO was set up at the IOC in Ottawa in 1986. It was intended partly to promote contacts between scientists in countries with different political systems, and partly to promote cooperation between scientists and others involved in activities such as practical problems involving birds for which scientific information is required. At the 1990 IOC in New Zealand, it was agreed that the SCAO, in areas where the interests of birds and human interests conflict, should:

- advise the IOC Scientific Program Committee on topics and speakers for IOC symposia and round table discussions in the area of applied ornithology;

- improve communication between pure and applied ornithologists;

- make relevant ornithological information more available to non-ornithologists.

Working Groups were set up on:

- Bird Damage to Agriculture (Chairman, Dr Dolbeer);

- Global Contaminant Problems in Birds (Dr. Brisbin);

- Birds as Indicators of Environmental Change (Dr. Furness)

- Diseases Transmitted by Birds to People and Livestock (Dr. Cooper);

- Bird Hazards to Aircraft (Mr L. Buurma).

In the 1998 IOC, there is again a RTD on the role and future of the SCAO, in particular to consider including information on applied ornithology in a possible future IOC website, and setting up a new Working Group on conservation-oriented research (an idea discussed in 1986 and in Vienna in 1994, but never carried out). In addition, the SCAO or its members have been involved in planning a number of other RTDs and a symposium for the 1998 IOC in Durban.

The Chairs of three of the Working Groups have written short reports on their Groups' activities during 1994-1998. These reports are presented below under their names.

Some SCAO members are willing to continue, some prefer to retire. A new list of proposed members will be submitted after the IOC in South Africa to the new IOC President.

Respectively submitted: John Temple Lang, Secretary SCAO, Avenue Chateau de Walzin 12 (6), Brussels, B-1180, Belgium.

B) Report of IOC Working Group on Bird Damage to Agriculture, 1995-1998

This working group had its origins at the 19th International Ornithological Congress in Ottawa, Canada, 1986, when a symposium was held on "Birds in Agriculture". The working group was actually formed after the 20th International Ornithological Congress in Christchurch, New Zealand, 1990, and has developed through correspondence. Members include: Thierry Aubin (France); Larry Clark and Richard Dolbeer (USA); Clive Elliott (Rome-UNFAO); Chris Feare and Elaine Gill (UK); Jan Pinowski (Poland); Daniel Mathews and P. Syamsunder Rao (India); Ethel Rodriguez (Uruguay), Maria Elena Zaccagnini (Argentina). New members are welcome at any time.

Because the human population is currently growing at the rate of over 100 million people per year, there are increased conflicts world-wide between agricultural interests and birds. Large-scale killing of crop-depredating birds or the destruction of their habitat are usually not acceptable or desirable means of resolving conflicts. Therefore, considerable research has been conducted in recent years to develop and evaluate avian repellents, and this was the topic of a Round Table Discussion at the XXI IOC in Vienna in 1994.

Some significant developments during the past 4 years regarding repellents or other approaches for managing pest birds in agriculture, as passed on by members of the working group, are as follows:

As noted in the 1994 report of this working group, the All India Coordinated Research Project on Agricultural Ornithology (AICRPAO) published a document in 1992 summarizing research activities at five research stations in India over the preceding 8 years. The 18-page document provided an excellent account of the beneficial and pest bird species associated with agriculture and research on management techniques. One interesting area of research has been the use of botanically-derived repellents for reducing bird feeding on sprouting and ripening grain crops. Extracts from the neem tree showed particular promise. During 1995, Dr. Russell Mason, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), and Dr. Daniel Mathew, University of Calicut, conducted an evaluation of neem as a bird repellent (Mason and Mathews 1996). They concluded "that neem is an economical and biologically safe bird repellent and it may be useful in developing nations where neem is indigenous or introduced." For more information, contact Dr. Mason at USDA/APHIS/WS, Predator Ecology Project, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322-5295 or Dr. D. N. Mathew, Professor, Zoology, University of Calicut, Kerala, India.

Recent research projects done in the UK with cinnamic acid derivatives show promise in developing bird repellents for agricultural crops. Dr. Elaine Gill et al. (1998) published an excellent paper in which they showed in a field experiment that cinnamamide-treated food could actually modify feeding behaviors of free-ranging birds. They concluded that "bird pests tend to be flock feeders, thus an effective and appropriately formulated chemical repellent may be an effective tool for modifying the behavior of bird pests to reduce damage." For more information, contact Dr. Elaine Gill, FRCA, Block C, 98 Epsom Road, Guilford GU1 2LD, UK.

Dr. Gill's colleague, Dr. Chris Feare, is publishing a book in late 1998 on the European Starling (his second) which discusses the agricultural problems caused by this species. Starlings were regarded as significant economic pests of agriculture in Britain and parts of Europe during the 1960's and 1970's, but numbers have since then undergone a decline, both in Britain and in many parts of northern Europe. Starling numbers appear stable in the USA.

Dr. Larry Clark, formerly of the Monell Chemical Senses Center, 3500 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA, and currently with USDA, National Wildlife Research Center, Ft. Collins, CO 80524-2719, has done some interesting work on chemical structures predictive of bird repellency (Clark and Shah 1994). Dr. Clark and his graduate student, Gwen Stevens, have also done interesting work using methyl anthranilate (MA, see below) in a fogging formulation to repel birds (Stevens and Clark 1998).

A new product line of chemical bird repellents under the name ReJeX-iTTM, containing MA as the active ingredient, has been developed by a private company, RJ Advantage, 501 Murray Road, Cincinnati, Ohio 45217 USA, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). According to Dr. Peter Vogt of RJ Advantage (513-482-7320), three ReJeX-iTTM formulations have been registered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) since 1995. MA is a food flavoring approved in USA for human consumption. However, birds find the taste aversive. Initial uses for ReJeX-iTTM formulations are for repelling birds from standing water at airports and toxic holding ponds, garbage at landfills, and grass. Dr. Vogt is also testing formulations that can be applied to fruit to discourage birds from feeding.

Another chemical repellent for birds that shows excellent promise is a formulation of anthraquinone (AQ) marketed as Flight ControlTM by Environmental Biocontrol International (EBI), 3521 Silverside Road, Wilmington, Delaware 19810, USA. Tests with AQ in the USA by USDA biologists have shown excellent repellency for geese grazing on turf and as seed-coat treatment to repel blackbirds (Avery et al. 1997, Dolbeer et al. 1998). EBI, according to company president Ken Ballinger (1-800-468-6324), expects to have EPA registration of Flight Control by January 1999.

Dr. Clive Elliott (FAO/AGO2, Via delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy) reports that red-billed queleas continue to threaten small-grain cereal production in Africa. Their depredations are currently effectively countered only by lethal control with pesticides (often fenthion). Dr. Elliott is trying to develop Integrated Pest Management (IPM) schemes that, by using crop management and bird scaring practices, will lessen the need for large-scale lethal control. In addition, Dr. Elliott indicates there is a need to better understand the complex migration patterns of quelea in Africa so that crops can be managed to avoid influxes of birds when grain ripens and so that lethal control can be directed to those roosting/nesting populations causing the most damage. Dr. Elliott convened a round table discussion on these topics at the XXII IOC in South Africa.

Maria Elena Zaccagnini, Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria (INTA), Parana, Entre Rios, Argentina is also working on IPM programs to reduce the killing of birds to protect crops. Farmers currently spray avicides in attempts to solve problems, but these attempts not only may fail to stem the damage, but also cause substantial environmental damage.

As an aid to developing IPM programs, Ethel Rodriguez of Uruguay completed her Ph.D. dissertation in 1994 on the use of visual cues to enhance chemical repellents for birds in grain crops. Dr. Rodriquez determined in field trials in Uruguay that applying visual cues such as white calcium carbonate can result in lower levels of chemical repellents (e.g., methiocarb) being required to reduce bird damage. Dr. Rodriquez can be reached at c/o Director Sanidad Vegetal, Av. Millan 4703, Montevideo, Uruguay.

The U.S. Food and Drug administration gave approval in 1992 for USDA to begin using Alpha Chloralose (AC) in the USA to capture nuisance or crop-damaging waterfowl and pigeons. Currently, over 200 USDA biologists are certified to use AC and are successfully solving various bird problems with AC throughout the USA. Laboratory and field tests have shown AC, incorporated into baits of bread or corn, to be an humane means of capturing pest birds (Belant and Seamans 1997). Captured birds are either euthanized or relocated to other areas. For more information contact Tom Seamans, USDA, 6100 Columbus Ave., Sandusky, Ohio 44870 USA.


Avery, M. L., J. S. Humphrey, and D. G. Decker. 1997. Feeding deterrence of anthraquinone, anthracene, and anthrone to rice-eating birds. Journal of Wildlife Management 61:1359-1365.

Belant, J. L. and T. W. Seamans. 1997. Comparison of three formulations of alpha-chloralose for immobilization of Canada geese. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 33:606-610.

Clark, L., and P. Shah. 1994. Tests and refinements of a general structure-activity model for avian repellents. Journal of Chemical Ecology 20:321-339.

Dolbeer, R. A., T. W. Seamans, B. F. Blackwell, J. L. Belant. 1998. Anthraquinone formulation (Flight ControlTM) shows promise as avian feeding repellent. Journal of Wildlife Management 62:1557-1563.

Gill, E. L., C. J. Feare, D. P. Cowan, S. M. Fox, J. D. Bishop, S. D. Langton, R. W. Watkins, J. E. Gurney. 1998. Cinnamamide modifies foraging behaviors of free-living birds. Journal of Wildlife Management 62:872-884.

Mason, J. R. and D. N. Matthew. 1996. Evaluation of neem as a bird repellent chemical. International Journal of Pest Management 42:47-49.

Stevens, G. R. and L. Clark. 1998. Evaluation of an integrated bird hazing system at the Jim Bridger Power Station, Rock Springs, Wyoming. Proceedings of the Vertebrate Pest Conference 18: [in press].

Respectively submitted by: Richard A. Dolbeer, Chair, Working Group on Bird Damage to Agriculture.

C) Report on the Working Group on Birds, contaminants, and the legacy of the cold war.

With the ending of the Cold War, many nations are left with a wide range of contaminated sites, containing both nuclear wastes and toxic chemicals. Most nations are faced with the problem of cleaning up these sites within a context of insufficient funds to clean up all sites to a pristine condition. Clearly, decisions must be made regarding what sites to clean up, how much to clean them up, who to involve in the decision, and how to determine the relative costs and benefits to society of such clean up and associated costs. In the U.S. alone the Department of Energy (responsible for nuclear facilities) has sites in 34 states, with huge quantities of contamination, including for example over 600 billion gallons of contaminated groundwater. Other nations with even more severe monetary constraints face similar problems. Further, the risk at many sites throughout the world is great because containment tanks or other facilities are old and corroding. The potential for accidents increases with each passing year, and the potential risk to humans and ecosystems must be evaluated. Avian studies can contribute markedly to the evaluation of the risk to ecosystems, including humans. Birds can be used as bio-monitoring tools for ecosystem health, as well as bio-indicators of potential human exposure to cesium and other contaminants. Ornithologists need to exchange information on the ways that birds can be used to increase our knowledge both of contaminant dynamics within birds, and as indicators of ecosystem degradation. Our combined knowledge base can be very important in the decision process of what to do with nuclear facilities and the degree of clean up that may be necessary. Questions to addressed included: Can avian bio-indicator species be useful to evaluate the risk to bird populations in general? Can birds be useful to indicate effects on other consumer populations such as mammals? What species or groups of birds will be most useful as indicators of radiological and chemical contamination? What data do we have worldwide that will make certain species of birds more useful as indicators on a worldwide basis? Is it advantageous to develop a set of guidelines for choice of avian bio-indicators so that, should another problem develop, we can use these species immediately? Does the ecology or physiology of specific species of birds make them better as indicators of radiological stress, and are these the same as for chemical stress?

Review of the Usefulness of Birds in Selected Countries

In the United States, the Department of Energy has facilities in a number of states, and the complex houses over 3000 tons of spent nuclear fuel, some of which is in pools that are now corroding, threatening to contaminate groundwater supplies. There are 710 million gallons of radionuclide mixed waste at Hanford (in Washington), Savannah River (in South Carolina) and Oak Ridge (in Tennessee) alone. Clearly the problem of remediation of Department of Energy sites is a national priority. Cleaning up these sites to a pristine state will be extremely costly, and the degree of clean-up depends partly on future land use. Yet, in the United States, the amount of money required to clean up all the Department of Energy facilities is much larger than the available funds, suggesting that decisions must be made regarding priorities. The decisions include whether to clean up all sites, what sites to clean up, the level of clean up, and how to evaluate the success of clean-up. Protecting ecological health, as well as human health, are the overall objectives of any clean-up program. Birds can provide useful information for all of the questions surrounding the clean-up and future land use of Department of Energy Sites. By carefully selecting the species, they can be used to indicate both local exposure, regional exposure, and effects. Moreover, by selecting common species a detailed bio-monitoring scheme can be developed that will allow continuing assessment of the contaminant problems. Major issues at these nuclear facilities continue to be not only the kinds and levels of clean-up, but the continued missions of these sites. Local residents, as well as those living farther from sites, have very clear opinions about the continued nuclear mission of facilities, especially when it involves transport of nuclear material through regions. Determining the effects on ecosystems of these continued activities is extremely important, and birds can serve as useful indicators. Some of these same issues are being discussed in the United Kingdom, where the reprocessing of nuclear materials is a public concern. The reprocessing is largely for storage purposes, and many of the sites are relatively small, increasing the concerns of local citizens. Economic considerations result in local support for the continuation of reprocessing activities, with the unfortunate result of some discharges of nuclear materials. Although human health risks are monitored through levels in fish, there is little monitoring at the ecosystem level. Birds are being used as additional bio-indicators, but other organizational levels should also be examined. In Germany and some other European countries, extensive monitoring schemes have been initiated for chemicals, with more detailed monitoring where there are hotspots of contamination. Birds, particularly seabirds, are the major indicators used. Both the levels of contaminants in eggs, and reproductive success are being used as indicators of environmental problems. In many other countries, the problems created by nuclear facilities are greatly augmented by other sources of environmental pollution. In some cases, the problems created by heavy metal and organic pollution are still major. Often, although pollution control laws exist, they are not enforced, resulting in contamination, particularly of major river waters. In India, for example, much of the Ganges River is polluted because environmental laws are not enforced, there is no measure of control on factories, and major discharges result in contamination of fish and birds. Fish kills sometimes occur, and with little control, these fish find their way to local markets. Other changes in aquatic vegetation due to phosphate discharges have resulted in decreases in Jacana populations. While seabirds and birds that are high on the food chain have often been used as bio-indicators of contamination, including from nuclear facilities, the use of birds to assess contamination in farmlands was stressed as an important need. Ornithologists from South Africa, and other countries, felt that more attention should be devoted to developing farmland birds as bio-indicators of pesticide contamination. This requires obtaining baseline information on contaminant levels in a wide range of birds so that levels of contaminants can be assessed.


Overall our conclusions were that birds can be extremely useful as bio-indicators of environmental pollution, including from nuclear facilities. The degree that birds are currently being used varies by country, depending on the nature of their environmental problems. Some countries are still dealing with pollution from more traditional industrial and urbanised activities, where mortality, changes in avian populations, and tissue contaminant levels in birds are useful indicators of problems. This is particularly true where either illness or mortality of birds indicates problems with fish resources that are shared with humans. Although not extensively used, birds living in agricultural ecosystems should be developed as bio-indicators. In other countries, such as the United States and the United Kingdom, pollution from nuclear facilities is a public concern, and birds are serving as early warnings of environmental problems and as tools for bio-monitoring schemes, to determine levels of clean-up, assess current problems, and evaluate clean-up.

Respectively submitted by Joanna Burger1, Robert Furness2 & I. Lehr Brisbin Jr.3

1Rutgers University, NJ, USA, <burger@biology.rutgers.edu>; 2University of Glasgow, Scotland, UK; 3University of Georgia, GA, USA, <r.furness@bio.gla.ac.uk>

D) Report of the Working group on Zoonoses.

The XXII (22nd) International Ornithological Congress (IOC) was held in Durban, South Africa, from 16-22 August 1998. A round table discussion was organized by the Working Group on Diseases Transmitted to People and Livestock and was entitled 'Zoonoses: Diseases of humans spread by birds; are they on the increase?'

The Roundtable was co-ordinated by Professors J.E. Cooper and J. Pinowski and the program of lectures was as follows:

(1) Introduction and welcome. John E. Cooper (UK and E. Africa).

(2) Zoonoses - what are they? John E Cooper.

(3) Arboviruses, toxoplasmosis and borreliosis in Passer domesticus and P. montanus. Jan Pinowski, (Poland), I Literák, (Czech Republic) and Z Juricova, (Czech Republic)

(4) Antibodies to arboviruses in House Sparrow Passer domesticus in Czech Republic. Z. Juricova (Czech Republic), I. Literak (Czech Republic), J. Pinowski (Poland)

(5) Zoonoses - legal and ethical considerations. Margaret E. Cooper, (UK).

(6) Health risks to ornithologists John E Cooper and Jan Pinowski

The Roundtable concluded with a general discussion, with contributions from all those present - representing ten different countries.

Further information about the Working Group or the round table discussion (including, in some cases, copies of papers) is available from the Chairman of the Working Group, Professor John E Cooper, Wildlife Health Services, P O Box 153, Wellingborough, NN8.

Cooper & Pinowski: Diseases of humans spread by birds

Respectively submitted by: John E. Cooper1 & Jan Pinowski2

1Wildlife Health Services, P.O. Box 153, Wellingborough, NN8 2ZA UK, 2Department of Vertebrate Ecology, Institute of Ecology PAS, 05-092 Lomianki, Poland, e-mail ekolog@warman.com.pl

Appendix 3


Honorary President: (1998-2002) Ernst Sutter (Switzerland)

President: (1998-2002) Walter J. Bock (U.S.A.)

Vice President: (1998-2002) Jacques Blondel (France)

Secretary: (1998-2002) Dominique G. Homberger (U.S.A.)

Secretary-General: (1998-2002) Xu, Wei-shu (China)

Executive Committee: (1998-2002) Alexander V. Andreev (Russia); John P. Croxall (United Kingdom); Aldo Berruti (South Africa, ex officio); Nathan N. Gichuki (Kenya); Peter Berthold (Germany, ex officio); Hiroyoshi Higuchi (Japan); Jacques Blondel (France, ex officio); Dominique G. Homberger (U.S.A., ex officio); Walter J. Bock (U.S.A., ex officio); Lukas Jenni (Switzerland); Carlos Bosque (Venezuela); Pilai Poonswad (Thailand); Michael Clarke (Australia); John C. Wingfield (U.S.A.); Fred Cooke (Canada); Xu, Wei-shu (China, ex officio).

Past Presidents: Ernst Mayr (1958 - 1962); Jean Dorst (1970 - 1974); Lars von Haartman (1978 - 1982); Christopher M. Perrins (1990 - 1994); Peter Berthold (1994 - 1998).

Senior Members of the International Ornithological Committee

Aschoff, Jürgen, Jacobistrasse 29, D-79104 Freiburg/Br., Federal Republic of Germany. [Died: 12 October 1998; see Nature vol. 396(6710):418; Dec. 1998]; Bauer, K., Erste Zoologische Abteilung, Naturhistorisches Museum, Burgring 7, Postfach 417, A-1014 Wien, Austria; Biswas, Biswamoy, Zoological Survey on India, Indian Museum, Calcutta 16, India; Blokpoel, Hans, Canadian Wildlife Service, Ontario Region, 49 Camelot Drive, Nepean, Ontario, K1A 0H3. Hans.Blokpoel@ec.gc.ca; Boag, David A., 6746 Amwell Drive, Brentwood Bay, British Columbia, V8M 1A4, Canada; Bock, Walter J., Department of Biological Sciences, 1200 Amsterdam Avenue, Mail Box 5521, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027, United States of America [Permanent Secretary, 1986 -1998; President, 1998 - 2002] wb4@columbia.edu; Brosset, André, Laboratoire d'Écologie Générale du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 4 avenue du Petit Château, F-91800 Brunoy, France; Burton, Philip J.K., High Kelton, Doctors Commons Road, Berkhamsted, Herts., HP4 3DW, United Kingdom; Curio, Eberhard, AG für Verhaltensforschung, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätstraße 150, D-44780 Bochum, Federal Republic of Germany. eberhard.curio@ruhr-uni-bochum.de; Dorst, Jean, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Zoologie(Mammifères et Oiseaux), 55 rue de Buffon, F-75005 Paris, France. [President 1970 - 1974]; Erskine, Anthony J., P.O. Box 1327, Sackville, New Brunswick E0A 3C0, Canada; Falls, J. Bruce, Department of Zoology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A1, Canada. pero@zoo.utoronto.ca Ferry, Camille, F-21121 Etaules, France; Flint, Valery, Central Laboratory for Nature Conservation, Znamenskoye-Sadki, 142 790, P.O. Vilar, Moscow Region. [To Professor Flint: rbcu@glas.apc.org]; Futehally, Zafar, No. 2205, Oakwood Apartments, Jakkasandra layout, Koramangala 3rd Block, 8th Main, Bangalore 560 034, India; Garrido-Calleja, Orlando H., Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Capitolio Nacional, La Habana 2, Ciudad de la Habana, 10200 (Mailing address: Calle 60 # 1706, Marianao 13, La Habana), Cuba; Géroudet, Paul, Avenue de Champel 37, CH-1206 Genève, Switzerland; Glutz von Blotzheim, Urs, "Kappelmatt", Herrengasse 56, CH-6430 Schwyz, Switzerland; Goethe, Friedrich, Kirchreihe 19 B, D-26384 Wilhelmshaven, Federal Republic of Germany; von Haartman, Lars, Lemsjöholm, via Turku, SF-21999, Finland. [Secretary-General, 1954-1958; President, 1978-1982]; Haftorn, Svein, Zoologisk Avdeling, Universitetet i Trondheim, DKNVS, Museet, Erling Skakkes Gt. 47 B, N-7004 Trondheim, Norway (Mailing address N-7060 Klaebu). [Vice President, 1990-1994] svein.haftorn@vm.ntnu.no; Holgersen, Holger, Norvald Frafjords gt. 7 B, N-4041 Hafrsfjord, Norway; Howell, Thomas R., P.O. Box 677, Gualala, California 95445, United States of America; Hudec, Karel, Hluboká 5, CS-639 00 Brno, Czech Republic; Ishii, Susumu, Department of Biology, Faculty of Education, Waseda University, Nishi-Waseda 1-6-1, Tokyo 169-50, Japan. susumu@mn.waseda.ac.jp; James, Frances C., Department of Biological Sciences, The Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306, United States of America. james@bio.fsu.edu; Johnson, Ned K., Museum of Vertebrate Zoology & Department of Zoology, 3101 Valley Life Sciences Building # 3160, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, United States of America. neddo@socrates.berkeley.edu; Jouanin, Christian, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 55 rue de Buffon, F-75005 Paris, France; Kear, Janet, Jewells Lodge Cottage, Umberleigh, Devon, EX37 9EY, United Kingdom. [Vice-President, 1994 - 98] xyf30@dial.pipex.com; Keast, J. Allen, Department of Biology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6, Canada; Kikkawa, Jiro, Department of Zoology, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Brisbane, QLD, 4072, Australia. jkikkawa@zoology.uq.edu.au; Liversidge, Richard, 92 Central Road, Kimberley 8301, Republic of South Africa. birdman@ilink.nis.za; Löhrl, Hans, bei den Eichen 5, D-7271 Egenhausen, Federal Republic of Germany; Løppenthin, Bernt, Torvevej 14, DK-2740 Skovlunde, Denmark; Maclean, Gordon, P. O. Box 127, Rosella, 3301, South Africa. maclean@futurest.co.za; P. Mayr, Ernst, Museum of Comparative Zoology, 26 Oxford Street, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, (Mailing address: 207 Badger Terrace, Bedford MA 01739) United States of America. [President, 1958-1962]; Mees, Gerlof F., 31 West Street, Busselton, 6280 West Australia, Australia; Meise, Wilhelm, Am Weiher 23, D-20255 Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany; Morioka, Hiroyuki, Department of Zoology, National Science Museum, Hyakunin-cho 3-23-1, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169, Japan. [c/o Dr. Nishiumi -- nishiumi@kahaku.go.jp]; Nakamura, Tsukasa, Department of Biology, Yamanashi University, Kofu 400, Japan; Nicholson, E. Max, 13 Upper Cheyne Row, London SW3 5JW, United Kingdom; Nicolai, Jürgen, Ackerstrasse 4, D-26419 Schortens (Sillenstede), Federal Republic of Germany; Oehme, Hans, Marzahner Chaussee 161, D - 12681 Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany; Papi, Floriano, Dipartimento di Scienze del Comportamento Animale e dell'Uomo, Via A. Volta 6, I-56126 Pisa, Italy. papi@discau.unipi.it; Pinowski, Jan Krystyn, Department of Vertebrate Ecology, Institute of Ecology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Dziekanów Lesny (near Warsaw), 05-150 Lomianki, Poland. [Vice President, 1986 - 1990] ekolog@warmen.con.pl; Randík, Aladár, Bohúñova 32, CS-811 04 Bratislava, Kriva 3, Hurrbanovo, Slovakia Republic; Ripley, S. Dillon, Room 336, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, United States of America; Rowley, Ian C.R., 53 Swan Street, Guildford, Western Australia 6055, Australia. icrowley@ozemail.com.au; Rutschke, Eric, Research Center for Wetland and Waterfowl, Allee nach Sansouci Villa Liegnitz, D-1570 Potsdam, Federal Republic of Germany. [died 12 January 1999]; Schifferli, Alfred, Im Wygart, CH-6204 Sempach, Switzerland; Schmidt-Koenig, Klaus, Am Eulenstein 8, D-77704 Oberkirch, Germany. klaus.schmidt-koenig@uni-tuebingen.de; Schifter, Herbert, Erste Zoologische Abteilung, Naturhistoriches Museum, Burgring 7, Postfach 417, A-1014 Vienna; Short, Lester L., Private Bag, Nanyuki, Kenya (East Africa). nmk@AfricaOnline.co.ke; Siegfried, W. Roy, Percy Fitzpatrick Institute of African Ornithology, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700, South Africa. [c/o ms Colleen Brett - CBRETT@botzol.uct.ac.za]; Snow, David W., The Old Forge, Wingrave, Aylesbury, Buckshire HP22 4PD, United Kingdom; Somadikarta, Soekarja, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, University of Indonesia, Depok 16424. (Mailing address: Jalan Salak 12, Bogor 16151), Indonesia.; Stollmann, Andrej, Bohunova 32, Bratislava, Slovakia Republic; Sutter, Ernst, Naturhistorisches Museum, Augustinergasse 2, CH-4001 Basel, Switzerland [Honorary President, 1998 - 2002]; Thaler, Ellen, Alpenzoo Innsbruck-Tirol, Weiherburggasse 37, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria; Traylor, Melvin A., Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60605-2496, United States of America; Ulfstrand, Staffan, Department of Zoology, Villavägen 9, Uppsala University, S-752 36 Uppsala, Sweden. staffan.ulfstrand@zoologi.uu.se; Vasiliu, George D., 0300-Pitesti I, Aleea Teilor, Bloc 2 C, Sc.B. Etj. I, Ap. 5, Rumania; Vaz-Ferreira, Raul, Isabelino Bosch 2482, Montevideo, C.P., 11400, Uruguay <ferreira@fcien.edu.uy>; Voous, Karel H., V.D. Duyn van Maasdamlaan 28, NL-1272 EM Huizen, The Netherlands. [Secretary-General, 1966-1970; Honorary President, 1990-1994]; Warham, John, Zoology Department, University of Canterbury, P.B. 4800 Christchurch, New Zealand. j.warham@zool.canterbury.ac.nz; Won, Pyong-Oh, Institute of Ornithology, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 131 701 (mailing address: c/o Daerim Apt. 3-1404, Ogum-Dong 2, Songp'a-ku, Seoul 138-130), Korea; Woolfenden, Glen E., Department of Biology, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 (mailing address, Archbold Biological Station, Venus, Florida, 33960), United States of America birdlab@strato.net; Xu, Wei-shu, 1-1-302 Apt of Beijing Science, Technology Commission, 30 Ling Nan Road, Balizhuang, Haidian District, Beijing 100037, China. [Honorary Vice President, 1986-1990; Secretary-General, 1998 - 2002] s-g@ioc.org.cn; Zahavi, Amotz, Institute for Nature Conservation Research, Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv, Tel-Aviv, 69978 Israel. zahavi@post.tau.ac.il; Zheng, Guang-mei, Department of Biology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China. zhenggm@bnu.edu.cn; Zink, Gerhardt, Dürrenhofstraße 16, D-78315 Radolfzell, Federal Republic of Germany.



Bucher, Enrique H., Centro de Zoologia Aplicada, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Casilla de Correos 122, Cordoba 5000. buchereh@si.cordoba.com.ar; Nores, Manuel, Centro de Zoologia Aplicada, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Casilla de Correos 122, Cordoba 5000 <mnores@gtwing.efn.uncor.edu>


*Buttemer, William, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW. buttemer@uow.edu.au; *Boles, Walter, Division of Vertebrate Zoology, Australian Museum, 6 College Street, Sydney, NSW 2000. walterb@amsg.austmus.gov.au;*Clarke, Michael, Department of Zoology, La Trobe University, Bundoore, Victoria 3080. M.Clarke@zoo.latrobe.edu.au; Schodde, Richard, Australian National Wildlife Collection, CSIRO, Division of Wildlife and Ecology, P.O. Box 84, Lyneham, A.C.T. 2602. <Richard.Schodde@dwe.csiro.au>


(P) Dittami, John, Institut für Zoologie der Universität Wien, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna. [Secretary-General, 1990 - 1994] John.Dittami@univie.ac.at; Winkler, Hans, Konrad Lorenz Institut für vergleichende Verhaltensforschung der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Savoyenstrasse 1A, A-1160, Vienna. H.Winkler@klivv.oeaw.ac.at


Ivanovsky, Vladimir, V., Prospect Pobedy 15, korpus 4, apt. 87 Vitebsk 210032.


Devillers, Pierre, Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique, Rue Vautier 29, B-1040 Bruxelles. Devillers@kbinirsnb.be; Louette, Michel, Koninklijk Museum voor Midden-Afrika, B-3080 Tervuren. louette@africamuseum.be; Matthysen, Erik, Department of Biology, UIA Universiteitsplein 1, B-23610 Wilrijk, Antwerpen. matthys@uia.ua.ac.be


*Höfling, Elizabeth, Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo, C.P. 11 461, CEP 05422-970, Sao Paulo. <ehofling@usp.br>


Nankinov, Dimitar Nikolav, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Zoology, Boul. "Tzar Osvoboditel" 1, 1000 Sofia.


*Baker, Allan John, Centre for Biodiversity and Conservation Biology, Royal Ontario Museum, 100 Green's Park, Toronto, ON M5S 2C6. allanb@rom.on.ca; Barlow, Jon C., Department of Ornithology, Royal Ontario Museum , 100 Queen's Park, Toronto, Ontario M5S 2C6. jonb@rom.on.ca; *Bird, David, Avian Science and Conservation Centre, McGill University, 21,111 Lakeshore Road, Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Quebec H9X 3V9. bird@nrs.mcgill.ca; Boag, Peter, Department of Biology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6. boagp@biology.queensu.ca; Cooke, Fred, Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, V5A 1S6. fcooke@sfu.ca; McNeil, Raymond, Départment de Sciences biologiques, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre Ville, Montréal, Québec H3C 3J7. mcneilr@ere.U.Montreal.ca; Nettleship, David N., Canadian Wildlife Service, P.O. Box 1006, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia B2Y 4A2. David.Nettleship@ec.gc.ca; (P) Ouellet, Henri, 175, Avenue de la Citadelle, Hull, Quebec, J8Z 3L9. [Secretary-General, 1982-1986] [died 10 January 1999]; Richardson, W. John, LGL Ltd., Environmental Research Associates, 22 Fisher Street, P.O. Box 280 King City, Ontario L7B 1A6. <wjrichar@idirect.com>


Jaksic, Fabian M., Departamento de Ecologia, Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 114-D, Santiago. <fjaksic@bio.puc.cl>


*Lei, Fumin, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Zhongguancun Lu, Beijing 100080. leifm@panda.ioz.ac.cn; Severinghaus, Lucia Liu, Institute of Zoology, Academy of Science, Taipei, Taiwan, 11529. zolls@gate.sinica.edu.tw; *Zhang, Zhengwang, Department of Biology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875. zzw@bnu.edu.cn; Zhao, Zhengjie, Nanhu Xincun, Post Box 331, Building 67, Nan Hu Xin Cu, Changchun City, 130012, Jilin Province.


Stiles, F. Gary, Museo de Historia Natural, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Apartado 7495, Bogotá, D.C.


Gonzalez-Alonso, Hiram José, Instituto de Ecología y Sistemática, Carretera de Varona Km 3½, A. P. 8010, C.P. 10800, La Habana 8.

Czech republic

*Bures, Stanislav, Laboratory of Ornithology, Palacky University, tr. Svobody 26, 771 46 Olomouc. <bures@prfnw.upol.cz>


Dyck, Jan, Department of Population Biology, Zoological Institute, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø. jdyke@zi.ku.dk; Fjeldså, Jon, Zoologisk Museum, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø. <jfeldsaa@zmuc.ku.dk>


Benavides, Nancy, [Calle Hullgria 275, Vancouver, Quito, Box 9068 5 - 7.]; Ortiz-Crespo, Fernando I., Departo Biología, Universidad Catolica del Ecuador, Apartado 2184, Quito.


*Temple Lang, John, Avenue Chateau de Walzin 12 (6), Brussels, B-1180. john.temple-lang@dg4cec.be; Merne, Oscar, National Parks & Wildlife Service, 51 St. Stephen's Green, Dublin 2. <duchas@indigo.ie>


Lilleleht, Vilju, Institute of Zoology and Botany, Riia 181, EE 51014 Tartu. <vlill@zbi.ee>


Saurola, Pertii Lauri, Finnish Museum of Natural History, Zoological Museum, Ringing Centre, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 17 (P. Rautatiek. 13), Fin - 00014 Helsinki. <pertii.saurola@helsinki.fir>


Blondel, Jacques, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CEPE/CNRS, B. P. 5051, F-34033 Montpellier Cedex [Vice President, 1998 - 2002]. blondel@cefe.cnrs-mop.fr; Érard, Christian, Laboratoire de Zoologie (Mammiferes et Oiseaux), Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 55 rue de Buffon, F-75005 Paris. erard@mnhn.fr; Frochot, Bernard, Laboratoire d'Écologie Evolution, Université de Bourgogne, 6 boulevard Gabriel, F-21000 Dijon Cedex. bfrochot@u-bourgogne.fr; Thiollay, Jean-Marc, Laboratoire d'Ecologie, École Normale Supérieure, Laboratoire de Zoologie, 46 rue d'Ulm, F-75230 Paris Cedex 05. <thiollay@wotan.ens.fr>


Abuladze, Alexander V., [mailing address: C/O Dr. J. Shergalin, Sopruse PST. 175-58, Tallinn, EE 0034, Estonia]

Federal Republic of Germany

*Bairlein, Franz, Institut fur Vogelforschung, Vogelwarte Helgoland, An der Vogelwarte 21, D-26386 Wilhelmshaven. bairlein@ifv-terramare.fh.wilhelmshaven.de; (P) Berthold, Peter, Max-Planck-Institut für Ornithologie, Vogelwarte Radolfzell, Schloss Möggingen, D-78315 Radolfzell. [President, 1994 - 1998] Berthold@vowa.ornithol.mpg.de.; *Böhning-Gaese, Katrin, Lehrstuhl Zoologie/Tierphysiologie, RWTH Aachen, Kopernikusstrasse 16, D-52074, Aachen. boehning@bio2.rwth-aachen.de; Eck, Siegfried, Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde, A.B. Meyer-Bau, Königsbrüker Landstrasse 159, D-01109 Dresden; Gwinner, Eberhard, Max-Plank-Institut für Ornithologie, Von-der-Tann-Strasse 7, D-82346 Andechs. gwinner@erl.mpi-see.de; *Helbig, Andreas, Vogelwarte Hiddensee, D-18565 Kloster Hiddensee. helbig@mail.uni-griefswald.de; Martens, Jochen, Institut für Zoologie der Universität Mainz, Saarstrasse 21, D-55099 Mainz. martins@mail.zdv.uni-mainz.de; Prinzinger, Roland, AG Stoffwechselphysiologie, Institute für Zoologie, Universität Frankfurt, Siesmayrstraße 70, D-60323, Frankfurt a.M. prinzinger@zoology.uni-frankfurt.de; *Starck, J. Matthias, Institute of Zoology and Evolutionary Biology, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Erbertstrasse 1, D-07743 Jena. starck@pan.zoo.uni-jena.de; Wiltschko, Roswitha, FB Biologie der Universität Frankfurt, Siesmayerstraße 70, D-60323, Frankfurt a.M. wiltschko@zoology.uni-frankfurt.de; Wiltschko, Wolfgang, FB Biologie der Universität Frankfurt, Siesmayerstraße 70, D-60323 Frankfurt a.M. <wiltschko@zoology.uni-frankfurt.de>


Ntiamoa-Baidu, Yaa, Zoology Department, University of Ghana, P.O. Box 13252, Accra.


Bankovics, Attila, Hungarian Natural History Museum, Baross u. 13, H - 1088 Budapest; Sasvári, Lajos, Department of General Zoology, Elte University, H - 1445, Pf/330, Budapest, Puskin u. 3.


Gardarsson, Arnthor, Institute of Biology, University of Iceland, Grensásvegur 12, IS-108 Reykjavik. <arnthor@hi.is>


*Bhatt, Dinesh, Department of Zoology and Environmental Science, Faculty of Life Sciences, Gurukal Kangri University, Haridwar, 249,404. gkvishwa@nde.vsnl.net.in; *Bhattacharjee-Chandra, Parimal, Department of Zoology, Gauhati University, Guwahati, 781 014 Assam. bibhab@gnl.vsnl.net.in; Chandola-Saklani, Asha, Reproductive and Wildlife Biology Unit, Garhwal University, Post Box 45, Sprinagar, Garwhal, U.P. 246 174. asha@ugrh.ennet.in; Dhindsa, Manjit S., Department of Zoology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141 004; Hussain, S. Ali, Hussain Manzil, Anekere Road, Karkala 574 104, Karnataka.


Leshem, Yossi, Har Gilo Field Study Center, Doar Na Zfon Yehuda 90907. yleshem@post.tau.ac.il; Yom-Tov, Yoram, Department of Zoology, Tel-Aviv University, 69978, Tel Aviv. <yomtov@ccsg.tau.ac.il>


Benvenuti, Silvano, Dipartimento di Scienze del Comportamento Animale e dell'Uomo, Università of Pisa, Via A, Volta 6, I-56100 Pisa. BENE@DISCAU.UNITI.IT; Spina, Fernando, Institute Nazionale di Biologia della Selvaggina "A. Ghigi", Via Ca' Fornacetta, 9, I-40064 Ozzano, Emilia (Bologna). infsmigr@iperbole.bologna.it; Violani, Carlo, Departmento di Biologia Animale, Università di Pavia, Piazza Botta 9, I - 27 100 Pavia <c/o biology Department: biolan@ipv85.unipv.it>


Higuchi, Hiroyoshi, Laboratory of Wildlife Biology, School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, Yayoi 1-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113. higuchi@uf.a.u-tokyo.ac.jp; *Ishida, Ken, University Forests, Faculty of Agriculture, The University of Tokyo, Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo. ishiken@uf.a.u-tokyo.ac,jp; *Nakamura, Hiroshi, Faculty of Education, Shinshu University, Nishinagano, Nagano 380. knakamu@gipnc.shinshu-u.ac.jp; *Wada, Masaru, College of Arts and Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-8-30 Kohnodai, Ichikawa-shi, Chiba 272. wada@tmd.ac.jp; Yamagishi, Satoshi, Department of Zoology, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8502. yama@ci.zool.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Yoshii, Masashi, Bird Migration Research Center, Yamashina Institute for Ornithology, 115 Tsutsumine, Konoyama, Abiko-City, Chiba 270-11; Yuzo, Fujimaki, Laboratory of Wildlife Ecology, Obihiro University, Inada, Nishi 2-13, Obihiro 080. <fujimaki@obihiro.ac.jp>


Gichuki, Nathan N., Centre for Biodiversity, National Museums of Kenya, P.O. Box 40658, Nairobi. <nmk@AfricaOnline.co.ke>


Viksne, Janis, Laboratory of Ornithology, Institute of Biology, Latvian Academy of Sciences, Miera Street, LV - 2169 Salaspils. <ornlab@latnet.lv>


Kurlavicius, Petras, Institute of Ecology, Akademijos St. 2, MTP-2600, Vilnius. <BirdLife@post.5ci.lt>


Escalante-Pliego, Patricia, Depto. de Zoologia, Inst. de Biologia, UNAM, Apartardo Postal 70-153, Mexico City DF, 04510. escalant@servidor.unan.mx; Ramos-Olmos, Mario A., Ecosfera A.C., 5 De Mayo # 21, Apartado Postal 219, San Cristobal de las Casas, Chiapas 29200. (Mailing address: Senior Environmental Specialist, The Global Environment Faculty, Room G - 6029, 1818 H Street, NW., Washington, DC 20433, USA.) <mramos@worldbank.org>


*Batdegler, Dashnamjilyn, Department of Ornithology, Mongolian Natural History Museum, P.O. Box 120, Ulaanbaatar-210136. <postserv@magicnet.mn>


Brown, Christopher J., Ministry of Environment and Tourism, Directorate of Environment Affairs, Private bag 13306, Windhoek, 9000.


Drent, R. H., Zoological Laboratory, Rijksuniversity, Groningen, Kerklaan 30, Box 14, Haren, Groningen. [c/o Secretary S.C.Bakker-Geluk@biol.rig.nl]; * van Noordwijk, Arie Johannes, Netherlands Institute of Ecology, P.O. Box 40, NL-6666 ZG Heteren. noordwijk@cto.nioo.knaw.nl; *Piersma, Theunis, Netherlands Institute for Sea Research and University of  Groningen, PO Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg, Texel. theunis@nioz.nl; Spaans, Arie L., Institute for Forestry and Nature Research, P.O. Box 23, NL-6700 AA Wageningen. A.L.Spaans@ibn.dlo.nl; Zweers, Gart, Institute of Evolutionary and Ecological Sciences, University of Leiden, Kaiserstraat 63, P.O. Box 9516, NL - 2300 RA Leiden. <zweers@rulsfb.leidenuniv.nl>

New Zealand

(P) Bell, Benjamin D., School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Post Office Box 600, Wellington [Secretary-General, 1986 - 1990]. Ben.Bell@vuw.ac.nz; *Cockren, John, Comparative Physiology and Anatomy Section, Institute of Veterinary, Animal and Biomedical Science, College of Sciences, Massey University, Palmerston North. J.F.Cockren@massey.ac.nz; Craig, John, School of Environmental and Marine Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag, 92019 Auckland. jcraig@aukland.ac.nz; *Robertson, Chris J.R., Science & Research Division, N.Z. Department of Conservation, P.O. Box 12397, Wellington. 100244.1012@compuserve.com; Williams, Murray, Science & Research Division, Department of Conservation, P.O. Box 10-420, Wellington. <mwilliams@doc.govt.nz>


*Bech, Claus, Institute of Zoology, University of Trondheim, N-7055, Gragvoll. claus.bech@chembio.ntnu.no; Slagsvold, Tore, Division of Zoology, Department of Biology, University of Oslo, P. O. Box 1050, Blindern, N-0316 Oslo. <tore.slagvold@bio.uni.no>


Delgado, Franciscos, [Centro Regional, Universitario de Veraguas, Santiago].


Plenge, Manuel A., Los Capulies 771, Lima 18 (Mailing address: Apartado 18-0839, Lima 18).


*Busse, Przemyslaw, Bird Migration Research Station, Gdansk University, Przebendowo, 84-210 Choczewo. busse@univ.gda.pl; Tomialojc, Ludwik, Museum of Natural History, Wroclaw University, Sienkiewicza Street 21, PL 50-335 Wroclaw. tomilu@biol.uni.wroc.pl; Wesolowski, Tomasz, Department of Avian Ecology, Wroclaw University, Sienkiewicza 21, PL-50-335 Wroclaw. <tomwes@biol.uni.wroc.pl>


Kalabér, László V., 4225 Reghin/ County Mures, Street Eminescu 26.


Andreev, Alexander V., Laboratory of Ornithology, Institute of Biological Problems of the North of the Far-East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Karl Marx ul, 24, Magadan 685 010. ted@actor.ru; (P) Ilyichev, Valery, Academy of Technical Ecology, Garibaldy Str. 15 - 1 - 15, Moscow 117-335. [Secretary-General, 1982-1986] [To Professor V.D. Ilyichev: sevin@glas.apc.org]; Kurochkin, Evgeny N., Paleontological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Profsojunznaja ultiza 123, Moscow 117 647. enkur@paleo.ru; Panov, Evgeny, N., Laboratory of Comparative Ethology and Biocommunication, Severtsov Institute of Evolutionary Morphology and Ecology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky Prospect 33, Moscow 117 071. [To Dr. E.N. Panov: sevin@glas.apc.org]; Potapov, Roald L., Zoological Museum of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Universitetskaya naberezhnaya, 1, St. Petersburg, 199 034. prl@zisp.spb.su; Shibaev, Yuri V., Laboratory of Ornithology, Biology-Soil Institute of the Far-East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Prospect Stoletiya 159, Vladivostok 690 022. [To Dr. Y.V. Shibaev: zoology@ibss.marine.su]


Kang, Nee, Block 647, Yishun Street 61, # 07-366, Singapore 2776. <wudswufs@singnet.com.sg>

Slovakia Republic

*Kristin, Anton, Institute of Forest Ecology of SAS, Sturova 2, Zvolen, SK-960 53. <kristin@sav.savzv.sk>

South Africa

(P) Berruti, Aldo, BirdLife South Africa,  29 Winston Avenue, Robindale, 2194. [Secretary-General, 1994 - 8] aldo@birdlife.org.za; Crowe, Timothy M., Percy Fitzpatrick Institute of African Ornithology, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondelbosch 7700. tmcrowe@botzool.uct.ac.za; *Du Plessis, Morné, FitzPatrick Institute of African Ornithology, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7700. morne@botzool.uct.ac.za; Kemp, Alan, Department of Birds, Transvaal Museum, P.O. Box 413, Pretoria 0001. kemp@tm.up.ac.za; *Underhill, Les G., Avian Demography Unit, Dept. of Statistical Sciences, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700. <LGU@maths.uct.ac.za>


Moreno, Juan, Dept. Ecologia Evolutiva, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Natureles, José Gutiérrez Abascal 2, Madrid, E-28006. jmoreno@mncn.csic.es; Soler, Manual, Departamento de Biología Animal y Ecologia, Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Campus Universitario Fuente Nueva S/N, 18071 Granada. <msoler@goliat.ugr.es>


*Ekman, Jan, Department of Zoology, Population Biology, University of Uppsala, Norbywägen 18D, S-752 36 Uppsala. Jan.Ekman@zoologi.uu.se; Silverin, Bengt, Department of Zoology, University of Göteborg, Box 463, SE-405 30 Göteborg. bengt.silverin@zool.gu.se; *Smith, Henrik, Department of Animal Ecology, Ecology Building, Lund University, S-223 62 Lund. Henrik.Smith@zooekol.lu.se; Svensson, Sören, Department of Ecology, University of Lund, Ecology Building, S-223 62 Lund. <soren.svensson@zooekol.lu.se>


Bruderer, Bruno, Schweizerische Vogelwarte, CH-6204 Sempach. brudererb@orninst.ch; *Hegelbach, Johann, Zoologisches Museum der Universität Zürich-Irchel, Wissenschaftliche Abteilungen, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zürich hegzm@zoolmus.unizh.ch; Jenni, Lucas, Schweizerische Vogelwarte, CH-6402 Sempach. <jennil@orninst.ch>


Poonswad, Pilai, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama 6 Road, Bangkok 10400. <scpps@mucc.mahidol.ac.th>


Dranzoa, Chistine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Makerere University, Box 10066, Kampala. warm@uga.healthnet.org; Pomeroy, Derek, Resource Centre, MUIENT, P.O. Box 1066, Kampala. <derek@imul.com>


Serebryakov, Valentin V., Department of Biology, National Shevchenko University, Volodimirska Street 64, Kiev 252 601.

United Kingdom

Croxall, John P., British Antarctic Survey, Natural Environment Research Council, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ET. j.croxall@bas.ac.uk; Evans, Peter R., Department of Biological Sciences, University of Durham, Science Laboratories, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE. P.R.Evans@durham.ac.uk; Feare, Chris, 2 North View Cottages, Grayswood Common, Haslemere, Surrey, GU27 2DN. feare_wildwings@msu.com; Newton, Ian, Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Monks Wood Experimental Station, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE17 2LS. i.newton@ite.ac.uk; Parkin, David T., Department of Genetics, School of Medicine, Queens Medical Centre, Nottingham, NG7 2UH. David.Parkin@nottingham.ac.uk; (P) Perrins, Christopher M., Edward Grey Institute of Field Ornithology, Department of Zoology, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS [President, 1990-1994] chris.perrins@zoology.ox.ac.uk; Rands, Michael, Birdlife International, Wellbrook Court, Girton Road, Cambridge CB3 0NA. <mike.rands@birdlife.org.uk>

United States of America

Balda, Russell P., Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Box 5640, Flagstaff, Arizona 86001-5640. Russell.Balda@nau.edu; Baptista, Luis, F., Department of Ornithology/Mammalogy, California Academy of Sciences, Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, California 94118. lnapstista@casmail.calacademy.org; Carey, Cynthia, Department of EPO Biology, N 122 Ramaley, Campus Box 334, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309. careyc@spot.colorado.edu; Fitzpatrick, John W., Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology, 159 Sapsucker Woods Road, Ithaca, New York 14850. jwf7@cornell.edu; *Forster, Mercedes, National Biological Survey, National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC 20560-0111. foster.mercedes@nmnh.si.edu; Gill, Frank B., The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 3101 Benjamin Franklin Parkway, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19103-1195. fgill@audubon.org; *Gowaty, Patricia, Institute of Ecology, 711 Biological Sciences Building, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2602. gowaty@ecology.uga.edu; Holmes, Richard T., Department of Biological Sciences, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755. richard.t.holmes@dartmouth.edu; (P) Homberger, Dominique G., Department of Zoology and Physiology, 508 Life Sciences Building, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 -1725. [Secretary. 1998 - 2002] zodhomb@lsu.edu; Ketterson, Ellen D., Department of Biology, University of Indiana, Bloomington, Indiana 47405. ketterso@indiana.edu; Murphy, Mary E., 80 High Gate Lane, Blue Bell, PA 19422. murp287@ibm.net; Ricklefs, Robert, Department of Biology, University of Missouri-St. Louis, 8001 Natural Bridge Road, St. Louis, Missouri 63121-4499. ricklefs@umsl.edu; *Ramenofsky, Marilyn, Department of Zoology, University of Washington, Box 351 800, Seattle, WA. mramenof@u.washington.edu; *Root, Terry, University of Michigan, School of Natural Resources and Environment, 430 East University, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1115. tlroot@umich.edu; Wingfield, John C., Department of Zoology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195. <jwingfie@u.washington.edu>


Bosque, Carlos, Departamento Biologia de Organismos, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apt 89000, Caracas 1080. <carlosb@usb.ve>


Mundy, Peter J., P.O. Box 2283, Bulawayo. <mundy@telconet.co.zw>

* = Newly elected members of the IOC

P = Permanent Members of the IOC


Appendix 4


The Statutes and By-Laws of the International Ornithological Committee were originally prepared by Donald S. Farner, President of the XVII International Ornithological Congress, and adopted at that congress, Berlin 1978, with revisions at the Christchurch 1990, Vienna 1994, and Durban 1998 congresses. They replaced the Règlement des Congrès Ornithologiques Internationaux adopted at the IX International Ornithological Congress, Rouen 1938 and all amendments passed thereafter.


Article I

Objectives and Purposes

The International Ornithological Committee (IOC) (1) promotes international collaboration and cooperation in ornithology and (2) as it deems desirable and useful, encourages international collaboration and cooperation between ornithology and other biological sciences.

To effect these objectives and purposes the IOC sponsors and promotes International Ornithological Congresses; establishes and sponsors commissions and committees as it deems appropriate and desirable; establishes or sponsors other international ornithological activities as it deems appropriate; and functions as the Section of Ornithology of the International Union of Biological Sciences.

Article II

Membership and Functions

1. Size. The size of the membership of the IOC is determined by the Committee, but may not exceed the number specified in the By-Laws (Art. I).

2. Representation. The membership shall be representative of the international distribution of ornithologists, and the number of members from each country shall be proportional to its ornithological activity.

3. Election. New members are elected by the IOC at a regular meeting at the International Ornithological Congress from a list of nominations prepared and presented by the Executive Committee (EC). Proposals for this list can be made by any member of the IOC; they should be in writing with adequate documentation, and submitted to the President and the Secretary at least six months prior to the next congress. Nominees for membership in the IOC must have attended at least one International Ornithological congress which may be the one at which they are elected. Election to the IOC requires a simple majority of the members present and voting.

4. Term. The term of membership is indefinite unless the member resigns voluntarily or is absent from regular meetings of the IOC at two consecutive congresses, which constitutes automatic resignation. Resigned members may be re-elected.

5. Meetings. The IOC meets at least twice during each International Ornithological Congress. The quorum for transaction of business at a regular meeting consists of the members present at the meeting. A member must be in attendance at a meeting in order to cast his vote.

6. Duties. The duties of the IOC are: (a) to select the site of the next congress; (b) to elect new members of the IOC; (c) to elect the President, Vice President, Secretary and any Honorary Officers of the next congress; (d) to elect members of the Executive Committee; and (e) to take actions appropriate and necessary to carry out its stated objectives and functions (Art. I).

7. Special meetings. The President, under extraordinary circumstances may call a special meeting of the IOC, and is obligated to do so on receipt of a petition signed by one-quarter of the members. The date set for a special meeting must permit reasonable time for consideration of the agenda and for travel arrangements. A quorum for a special meeting is one-third of the members of the IOC. Failure to attend a special meeting shall not count toward automatic resignation (Art. II:4).

8. Presiding officer. The President presides at the meetings of the IOC.

9. Communications. Actions of the IOC are communicated to the congress and published either in the proceedings of the congress or in some other publication, as approved by the Executive Committee.

Article III


A. The President.

1. Election. The President is elected by a simple majority of the members present and voting at a regular meeting of the IOC at an International Ornithological Congress and is not eligible for election to the same office in two successive congresses.

2. Term. The President holds office from the conclusion of the congress at which elected until the conclusion of the following congress.

3. Duties. The President of the IOC also serves as chair of its Executive Committee, as President of the International Ornithological Congress, and (or designates a representative) as Chair of the Section of Ornithology of the International Union of Biological Sciences. The President presides at meetings of the IOC, of its Executive Committee and of the International Ornithological Congress, and appoints committees and commissions (with the exception of the Executive Committee) of the IOC and of the congress. After consultation with the host organization of the congress, the President shall appoint the Secretary-General.

4. Membership in the IOC. Past Presidents are permanent members of the IOC. The immediate Past President is also a member of the Executive Committee.

B. The Vice President.

1. Election. The Vice President is elected, following the election of the President, by a simple majority vote of the members present and voting at a regular meeting of the IOC at an International Ornithological Congress and is not eligible for election to the same office in two successive congresses.

2. Term. The Vice President holds office from the conclusion of the congress at which elected until the conclusion of the following congress.

3. Duties. The Vice President of the IOC also serves as vice chairman of the Executive Committee.

4. Succession. The Vice President shall serve as president of the IOC in case of the inability of the President in office to continue until the completion of the normal term of the President in office.

C. The Secretary-General.

The Secretary-General is appointed by the President (Art. III:A,3) and serves until the end of the congress period as Secretary-General and Treasurer of that congress, having all local and financial responsibilities for the preparation and running of the congress, including publication of the congress proceedings. The Secretary-General may nominate, for Presidential appointment, persons to serve in definite capacities such as treasurer and editor or on various local committees for the congress. The Secretary-General serves ex-officio as a member of the Executive Committee until the end of the successive congress. Past Secretaries-General are permanent members of the IOC.

D. The Secretary.

1. Election. The Secretary is elected, following the election of the President and the Vice-President, by a simple majority of the members present and voting at a regular meeting of the IOC at an International Ornithological Congress, and is eligible for reelection.

2. Term. The Secretary holds office from the conclusion of the congress at which elected until the conclusion of the following congress.

3. Duties. The Secretary shall keep all records of the IOC and its Executive Committee, prepare the agenda of meetings of the IOC and Executive Committee, serve as parliamentarian at these meetings, record and distribute within two months following the congress the minutes of the IOC and the Executive Committee meetings, prepare the published communications of these meetings, deal with communications of the IOC and the Executive Committee as directed by the President, and assist the President and Secretary-General in preparation of the congress. The Secretary is responsible for communicating with and assisting ornithologists of potential host countries in the preparation of invitations for future congresses. The Secretary of the IOC serves as secretary of the Section on Ornithology of the International Union of Biological Sciences. The Secretary is a member of the Executive Committee.

4. Membership in the IOC. Past Secretaries are permanent members of the IOC.

E. Honorary Officers.

The IOC, or the President with the consent of the Executive Committee, may elect honorary officers, such as Patrons, Honorary Presidents and Honorary Vice Presidents, of the congress to recognize the contributions of ornithologists and other persons to the cause of international ornithology. Honorary Presidents and Vice Presidents are members ex-officio of the IOC.

Article IV

The Executive Committee

1. Membership.

a. The President (Art. III:A,3), Vice President (Art. III:B,3), the Secretary (Art. III:D,3), the Secretary-General ex-officio (Art. III:C), the immediate Past-President ex-officio (Art. III:A,4) and the immediate Past Secretary-General ex-officio (Art. III:C) of the IOC until the end of the following congress.

b. An even number of elected members as specified by the By-Laws (Art. III). No more than one of these members may be from a single country. These members shall be elected with proper attention to an adequate international distribution in the Executive Committee.

2. Election. Nomination and election of members of the Executive Committee shall follow election of the President, Vice President, Secretary and any Honorary Officers. Nomination shall be proposed by the existing Executive Committee. Any member of the IOC present at the meeting may make additional nominations. If seconded these are added to the nominations proposed by the Executive Committee. Election of members of the EC is by simple majority vote of members of the IOC present and voting. Elected members are eligible for re-election as an elected member of the Executive Committee for one additional term.

3. Term. The Executive Committee shall serve from the conclusion of the congress at which it is elected to the conclusion of the following congress.

4. Duties.

a. During the inter-congress period, the Executive Committee acts on the behalf of the IOC.

b. During the inter-congress period, the Executive Committee has general responsibility for the scientific policy of the IOC including the program of the Congress, as specified in the By-Laws (Art IV:4).

c. At meetings of the IOC at an International Ornithological Congress, the Executive Committee provides:

(1) Nominations for the offices of President, Vice President, Secretary, and Honorary Officers and for the elected members of the Executive Committee.

(2) A recommendation concerning the host country and organization for the ensuing congress after due consideration of all invitations;

(3) Nominations for new members of the IOC with due consideration of Art. II:2;

(4) Recommendations for re-election of members considered to have resigned because of absence from two consecutive meetings, as specified in Art II:4;

(5) Advice and counsel concerning any other matters deemed to be of interest within the purview or among the responsibilities of the IOC.

Article V

Amendment of the Statutes

1. Proposal of amendment. Proposals to amend the statutes require the signatures of at least five members of the IOC from at least three countries, and must be transmitted to the President and the Secretary at least twelve months before the next International Ornithological Congress. The Secretary will distribute the proposed amendments to all members of the IOC at least four months prior to the congress. At the meeting of the IOC at the congress the Executive Committee will present its recommendation on each proposed amendment.

2. Adoption. Adoption of an amendment by the IOC requires two-thirds majority vote of the members present and voting. Adopted amendments become effective at the close of the congress.

Article VI

Enabling Clause

Adoption of these statutes requires a two-thirds majority vote of the members of the Existing IOC present and voting at a regular meeting of the International Ornithological Congress at which they are presented, having been distributed to the members prior to that meeting. Adoption of these statutes shall replace the Règlement des Congrès Ornithologiques Internationaux adopted in Rouen in 1938 and all amendments passed thereafter. If adopted, these statutes become effective immediately.


Article I

The size of the International Ornithological Committee (IOC)

The membership of the Committee shall not be more than 200. Members over 65 years of age, Past Presidents, Past Secretaries and Past Secretaries-General are not counted in this limit. Members of the IOC must be residents of the country that they represent. Senior Members are permanent members of the IOC and are not subjected to the requirements of Art. II.4 of the Statutes.

Article II

Meetings of the International Ornithological Committee

1. Sufficiently prior to the regular meeting of the IOC at an International Ornithological Congress, the Secretary shall distribute to all members an agenda of the meeting.

2. Members are requested to inform the President and the Secretary of their intention to attend the meeting and/or resign from the Committee.

3. An agenda and information on matters to be covered shall be sent to members with the notice of any special meeting called by the President.

Article III

Membership of the Executive Committee (EC)

In addition to the officers specified in Art. IV of the Statutes, the International Ornithological Committee elects ten members to the Executive Committee in accordance with Art. IV:1,b of the Statutes.

Article IV

The International Ornithological Congresses

1. The frequency of congresses. Congresses will be held at four-year intervals unless, for compelling reasons, the IOC, or the Executive Committee acting on its behalf, deems otherwise.

2. The site and time of congresses. After consultation with the Executive Committee and the host organization, and due consideration of the interests and convenience of the members, the site in the host country and time of the congress are fixed by the Secretary-General.

3. Membership of congresses. Membership in an International Ornithological Congress shall be open to all ornithologists and students of avian biology without distinction as to country of origin upon payment of the stated congress fee, if any. Membership and attendance at a Congress shall be in accordance with the general policies of the International Union of Biological Sciences. Any limitation on the number of active members of a congress may be made by the Secretary-General only after consultation with and agreement by the Executive Committee. Such limitation must be clearly stated in congress announcements. In the case of limitation in the number of active members, provision must be made for associate members which may not be limited in number. Members of the IOC may not be denied a place as an active member upon payment of the congress fee.

4. The scientific program of the congress. After consultation with the Executive Committee and the host organization the President appoints the Scientific Program Committee. This committee consists of three or more members from the host country and members from at least three other countries. The President, Secretary and Secretary-General are members ex-officio of the Scientific Program Committee. This committee is responsible to the Executive Committee for the scientific program of the congress.

5. The organization of the congress. The general organization of, and the arrangements for, the congress are the responsibilities of the Secretary-General.

6. The proceedings of the congress. The Secretary-General is responsible for the publications of the proceedings of the congress, and serves as editor of the proceedings or appoints an editor after obtaining concurrence from the President.

7. Finances of the congress. The Secretary-General is the treasurer and principal finance officer of the congress and as such is responsible for all financial matters of the congress. In consultation with the President, the Secretary General develops the budget and fixes congress fees. After all fiscal obligations have been absolved, any surplus funds, including any from the proceedings, are made available for inter-congress activities, including arrangements for the ensuing congress.

8. Hosting of future congresses. (a) Invitations from countries to host an International Ornithological Congress following the next scheduled congress should be sent to the President, Secretary and Secretary-General no later than six months before that congress. (b) On request, the Secretary-General and Secretary shall provide representatives of intending host countries with information required in their invitation document and with general guidelines for submitting such an invitation.

Article V

Amendment of the By-Laws

1. Proposal of amendment. Proposals to amend the By-Laws require the signature of at least three members from at least three countries and must be transmitted to the President and the Secretary at least twelve months in advance of the next International Ornithological Congress. At least four months prior to the congress, the Secretary shall distribute the proposed amendments to the members of the International Ornithological Committee. At the meeting of the IOC at the congress, the Executive Committee will present its recommendation on each proposed amendment.

2. Adoption. Adoption of the proposed amendments to the By-Laws by the IOC requires a simple majority vote of the members present and voting. Adopted amendments become effective at the close of the congress.

3. Conflict with the Statutes. No amendment of the By-Laws can have the effect of modification of the Statutes.

Article VI

Enabling Clause

Adoption of these By-Laws requires prior adoption of the proposed Statutes, and requires a simple majority vote of the members of the existing Committee present and voting at a regular meeting of the IOC at the congress at which they are presented, having been distributed to the members prior to that meeting. Adoption of these By-Laws shall replace any existing By-Laws and regulations (formal and informal) of the IOC and of the International Ornithological Congresses. If adopted these By-Laws become effective immediately.