WGEO Reading List

Last revised May 102, 2021

The following reading list contains articles in areas related to the interests of the Working Group on Ethics in Ornithology. It identifies readings on a variety of topics that provide background for discussions related to the goals of the working group. Suggestions for additions and changes are encouraged.

Summaries included with the entries are based on abstracts provided by the publishers and authors of the materials listed. Additional summaries will be added as they become available.

Animal Welfare

Fine, Aubrey H., ed. Handbook on animal-assisted therapy: Foundations and guidelines for animal-assisted interventions. Academic press, 2019. https://www.elsevier.com/books/handbook-on-animal-assisted-therapy/fine/978-0-12-801292-5


The fourth edition of the Handbook highlights advances in the field, since the inception of this handbook, with 11 new chapters and over 40% new material.  Therapists will discover the benefits of incorporating animal-assisted therapy (AAT) into their practices, best practices in animal-assisted intervention, how to design and implement animal-assisted interventions, and the efficacy of AAT with different disorders and patient populations.  Coverage includes the use of AAT with children, the elderly, those receiving palliative care, as well as people with chronic disorders, AIDS, trauma, and autistic spectrum disorders.  Additional chapters cover techniques for working with families, in juvenile and criminal justice systems, and in colleges and universities.



Hatch, Niall. “Highlights from the ‘International Dawn Chorus 2019’ radio broadcast.” Birdlife International. Stichting BirdLife Europe. 8 July 2019. Web. 8 May 2020. https://www.birdlife.org/europe-and-central-asia/news/highlights-‘international-dawn-chorus-2019’-radio-broadcast


BirdWatch Ireland had the great honour of co-producing the biggest and most ambitious live natural history radio broadcast ever made – the International Dawn Chorus Day. Niall Hatch who took part in the broadcast, shares his highlights from the day. https://www.rte.ie/radio1/mooney/generic/2019/0405/1040899-dawn-chorus-2019/

Moss, Stephen. “Crisis crescendos: how the Proms is sounding the alarm for a planet in peril.” The Guardian. Guardian News & Media Limited. 18 July 2019. Web. 8 May 2020. https://www.theguardian.com/music/2019/jul/18/crisis-crescendos-how-the-proms-is-sounding-the-alarm-for-a-planet-in-peril


This article reviews the 2019 Proms production with its big theme of nature, our part in destroying it and the danger of loss. Current Proms director David Pickard initial building blocks for this two-month music festival were John Luther Adams’s large-scale choral work In the Name of the Earth and the Lost Words based on writer Robert Macfarlane and illustrator Jackie Morris’s  2017 book of poems and paintings of the same name, celebrating nature and bemoaning the fact that children are losing the language that allows them to inhabit it. This review highlights the interconnection of all forms of art and the creative endeavors of composers, musicians, writers, visual artists, sound artists, dancers, poets.. are using their creative pursuits as a gift to a troubled and threatened planet. This review provides other links such as 16 swans passing overheadthe Argentinian hooded grebe and environmental activist Greta Thunberg – her TED talk – her speech at the Strasbourg convention in an interweaving power of a collective voice.


“Big data for biodiversity: Global Biodiversity Information Facility surpasses one billion records.” United Nations, Decade on Biodiversity. 9 July, 2018. https://www.cbd.int/doc/press/2018/pr-2018-07-09-cbd-gbif-en.pdf

Press release.

A global platform for sharing information about the world’s biodiversity has passed a major milestone, with the publication of the one-billionth record of where species live, through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility

Palmer, Christina. “Post-2020 global biodiversity framework: Discussion paper.” Convention on Biological Diversity.25 January 2019. Web. 4 May 2020. https://www.cbd.int/doc/c/d431/b38f/3d580bb73e7c2b5aaa286310/post2020-prep-01-01-en.pdf


The Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity adopted a comprehensive and participatory process for the preparation of the post-2020 global biodiversity framework. The present document summarizes the relevant decisions and recommendations adopted and presents a set of discussion questions which parties and observers may wish to consider when providing further views on the scope and content of the post-2020 global biodiversity framework. 

Tsioumani, Elsa. “On the Road to the 2020 UN Biodiversity Conference: Imagining the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework.” SDG Knowledge Hub. International Institute for Sustainable Development. 30 May, 2019. Web. 11 May, 2020. https://sdg.iisd.org/commentary/policy-briefs/on-the-road-to-the-2020-un-biodiversity-conference-imagining-the-post-2020-global-biodiversity-framework/


The international community, under the auspices of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), is set to review successes and failures in the context of the implementation of the Strategic Plan and negotiate a global biodiversity framework for the post-2020 era.

The 2020 UN Biodiversity Conference, to be held in October 2020 in Kunming, China, will be a critical moment for environmental decision making. It is now scheduled to take place from 11-24 October 2021, in Kunming, Yunnan Province, China.

Wilson, Edward O. "The biological diversity crisis." BioScience 35.11 (1985): 700-706.https://liberiafti.files.wordpress.com/2013/08/wilson_biological-diversity-crisis.pdf


Despite unprecedented extinction rates, the extent of biological diversity remains unmeasured.


Chung, Emily. “North America has lost 3 billion birds since 1970.” CBC Technology & Science. CBC/Radio-Canada. 29 September 2019. Web. 5 May 2020. https://www.cbc.ca/news/technology/bird-population-decline-1.5288454


Follow lead scientists findings and thoughts about this 29 percent loss of birds. Birds that migrate long distances have been particularly hard hit. This overlooked biodiversity crisis is researched in the following paper https://science.sciencemag.org/content/366/6461/120 by lead author conservation scientist Ken Rosenberg, and co-author research scientist Paul Smith with Environment and Climate Change Canada. Habitats, environments and this loss of abundance is “the old canary in a coal mine” that is going to affect people. Birds provide important benefits to ecosystems such as pest control, pollination and seed dispersal and common birds may be disproportionately important parts of the food web and local ecosystems. Birds are particularly good indicators of ecosystem health as they are easy to monitor. 

Fitzpatrick, John W., Marra, Peter P. “The Crisis for Birds Is a Crisis for Us All.” The New York Times. The New York Times Company. 29 September 2019. Web. 5 May 2020. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/09/19/opinion/crisis-birds-north-america.html?action=click&module=Opinion&pgtype=Homepage


Nearly one-third of the wild birds in the United States and Canada have vanished since 1970, a staggering loss that suggests the very fabric of North America’s ecosystem is unraveling. The disappearance of 2.9 billion birds over the past nearly 50 years was reported today in the journal Science, a result of a comprehensive study by a team of scientists from seven research institutions in the United States and Canada.

Friedman, Lisa. “A Trump Policy ‘Clarification’ All but Ends Punishment for Bird Deaths.” The New York Times. The New York Times Company. 24 December 2019. Web. 5 May 2020. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/12/24/climate/trump-bird-deaths.html


The revised policy — part of the administration’s broader effort to encourage business activity — has been a particular favorite of President Donald Trump’s, whose selective view of avian welfare has ranged from complaining that wind energy “kills all the birds” to asserting that the oil industry has been subject to “totalitarian tactics” under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918.

Pennisi, Elizabeth. “Three billion North American birds have vanished since 1970, surveys show.” Science. American Association for the Advancement of Science. 19 September, 2019. Web. 5 May 2020. https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2019/09/three-billion-north-american-birds-have-vanished-1970-surveys-show


North America's birds are disappearing from the skies at a rate that's shocking even to ornithologists. Since the 1970s, the continent has lost 3 billion birds, nearly 30% of the total, and even common birds such as sparrows and blackbirds are in decline, U.S. and Canadian researchers report this week online in Science. The findings raise fears that some familiar species could go the way of the passenger pigeon, a species once so abundant that its extinction in the early 1900s seemed unthinkable.

Zimmer, Carl. “Birds Are Vanishing From North America.” The New York Times. The New York Times Company. 22 September 2019. Web. 10 May 2020. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/09/19/science/bird-populations-america-canada.html?action=click&module=Top%20Stories&pgtype=Homepage


There are 2.9 billion fewer birds taking wing now than there were 50 years ago. The analysis, published in the journal Science, is the most exhaustive and ambitious attempt yet to learn what is happening to avian populations. The results have shocked researchers and conservation organizations.


“Around the world, C40 cities are taking bold climate action, leading the way towards a healthier and more sustainable future.” C40 Cities. The C40 Cities Group. Web. 14 May 2020. https://www.c40.org/

Weekes, Sue. “The rise of digital twins in smart cities.” Smart Cities World.  Smart Cities World Ltd. 6 January 2019. Web. 10 May 2020. https://www.smartcitiesworld.net/special-reports/special-reports/the-rise-of-digital-twins-in-smart-cities


Garnett, Stephen T., and Les Christidis. “Better governance will lead to better taxonomy: response to Raposo et al. (2017).” Zootaxa 4418.3 (2018): 296-298. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4418.3.7


The authors note: (i) that they have no wish to stifle taxonomic research, only to strengthen the legitimacy of its findings; and (ii) they believe that taxonomic research should not consider the consequences for conservation, or society, in its conclusions once transparent taxonomic criteria have been established, but that taxonomists have an obligation to improve their governance to ensure taxonomic conclusions are of the highest standard.

Garnett, Stephen T., and Les Christidis. “Implications of changing species definitions for conservation purposes.” Bird Conservation International 17.3 (2007): 187-195. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0959270907000809


Concern has been expressed that failure to adopt phylogenetic or related species concepts will result in biodiversity loss. Here we describe how widespread adoption of such concepts may affect conservation administration and the social contract with elected governments that fund management of threatened species. We then review threatened species legislation, showing that most laws and international conventions avoid arguments over species' definitions altogether, thus negating arguments that such definitions should be changed to further species' conservation.

Garnett, Stephen Thomas, and Les Christdis. “Science-based taxonomy still needs better governance: Response to Thomson et al. “PLoS Biology 16.3 (2018): e2005249. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2005249


The authors wish to stimulate a constructive discussion of the process of testing taxonomic hypotheses before they are accepted, not before they are published—this is governance of taxonomy, not nomenclature.

Garnett, Stephen T., and Les Christidis. “Taxonomy anarchy hampers conservation.” Nature News, 546.7656 (2017): 25. https://www.nature.com/news/taxonomy-anarchy-hampers-conservation-1.22064\


The assumption that species are fixed entities1 underpins every international agreement on biodiversity conservation, all national environmental legislation and the efforts of many individuals and organizations to safeguard plants and animals. Yet for a discipline aiming to impose order on the natural world, taxonomy (the classification of complex organisms) is remarkably anarchic.

Garnett, Stephen T., et al. “Principles for creating a single authoritative list of the world’s species.” PLoS Biology 18.7 (2020): e3000736 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000736


As improvements in information technology make it easier to communicate, access, and aggregate biodiversity information, there is a need for a framework that helps taxonomists and the users of taxonomy decide which taxa and names should be used by society whilst continuing to encourage taxonomic research that leads to new species discoveries, new knowledge of species relationships, and the refinement of existing species concepts. Here, we present 10 principles that can underpin such a governance framework. We conclude by outlining issues that must be resolved if such a system of taxonomic list governance and a unified list of accepted scientific names generated are to be universally adopted.

Jackson, Morgan D., Mark D. Scherz, and Scott Zona. “Taxonomy is not beholden to its dependencies: a rebuttal to Garnett and Christidis (2017).” PeerJPreprints 5:e3060v1 (2017). https://doi.org/10.7287/peerj.preprints.3060v1https://peerj.com/preprints/3060/


Garnett and Christidis (2017) slammed taxonomy for hampering conservation. We reject their premise that taxonomy is but a service in need of governance, rather than an independent—and foundational—scientific discipline.

McClure, Christopher JW, et al. “Towards reconcilliation of the four world bird lists: hotspots of disagreement in taxonomy of raptors.” Proceedings of the Royal Society B287.1929 (2020): 20200683. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2020.0683


There are currently four world bird lists referenced by different stakeholders including governments, academic journals, museums and citizen scientists. In reconciling lists, care must be taken to ensure agreement in taxonomic concepts—the actual groups of individual organisms circumscribed by a given scientific epithet. Here, we compare species-level taxonomic concepts for raptors across the four lists, highlighting areas of disagreement. Our results emphasize the need to reconcile the four world bird lists for all avian orders, highlight broad disagreements across lists and identify hotspots of disagreement for raptors, in particular.

Raposo, Marcos A., et al. “What really hampers taxonomy and conservation? A riposte to Garnett and Christidis (2017).” Zootaxa 4317.1 (2017): 179-184. https://www.mapress.com/j/zt/article/view/zootaxa.4317.1.10/0


Here we contest that the view of Garnett & Christidis (2017) conflicts with some basic and indisputable principles underpinning the philosophy of science, most notably: it must be free. 

Thomson, Scott A., et al. “Taxonomy based on science is necessary for global conservation.” PLoS biology 16.3 (2018): e2005075. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2005075


Taxonomy is a scientific discipline that has provided the universal naming and classification system of biodiversity for centuries and continues effectively to accommodate new knowledge. A recent publication by Garnett and Christidis] expressed concerns regarding the difficulty that taxonomic changes represent for conservation efforts and proposed the establishment of a system to govern taxonomic changes. Herein, we contribute to the conversation between taxonomists and conservation biologists aiming to clarify some misunderstandings and issues in the proposition by Garnett and Christidis.

Zachos, Frank E., Les Christidis, and Stephen T. Garnett. “Mammalian species and the twofold nature of taxonomy: a comment on Taylor et al. 2019.” Mammalia 84.1 (2019): 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1515/mammalia-2019-0009


We fully endorse the fundamental importance of taxonomy and its being grounded on scientific principles. However, we also deplore a lack of awareness in the literature of the fact that taxonomy is a twofold enterprise that encompasses not only (i) the scientific description and quantitative analysis of biodiversity but also (ii) an executive decision as to how the results of (i) are translated into names. This has serious ramifications for the conservation of our planet’s dwindling biodiversity and when taxonomic names are used as raw data for ecological and evolutionary analyses.

Climate Change

“Alliance of World Scientists.” World Scientists’ Warning to Humanity, College of Forestry Oregon State University22 December 2017, http://scientistswarning.forestry.oregonstate.edu/.  

“Biographies.” NO FLY Climate Sci, No Fly Climate Sci,  2018, https://noflyclimatesci.org/biographies

“BirdLife International’s Position on Climate Change.” BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK, 2015.  https://www.birdlife.org/sites/default/files/attachments/birdlife_climate_change_position_lores-november-2015.pdf

Cavicchioli, Ricardo, et al. "Scientists’ warning to humanity: microorganisms and climate change." Nature Reviews Microbiology 17.9 (2019): 569-586. https://scientistswarning.forestry.oregonstate.edu/sites/sw/files/Warning_microorganisms.pdf

Crist, Eileen. Abundant Earth: Toward an ecological civilization. University of Chicago Press, 2019. https://www.degruyter.com/chicago/view/title/558983


Eileen Crist not only documents the rising tide of biodiversity loss, but also lays out the drivers of this wholesale destruction and how we can push past them. Looking beyond the familiar litany of causes—a large and growing human population, rising livestock numbers, expanding economies and international trade, and spreading infrastructures and incursions upon wildlands—she asks the key question: if we know human expansionism is to blame for this ecological crisis, why are we not taking the needed steps to halt our expansionism?

“Climate Change.”  Birdlife International. Stichting BirdLife Europe. 14 May 2020. Web. 14 May 2020.https://www.birdlife.org/worldwide/programmes/climate-change

Coogan, Sean CP, et al. "Scientists’ warning on wildfire—a Canadian perspective." Canadian Journal of Forest Research 49.9 (2019): 1015-1023.   https://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/full/10.1139/cjfr-2019-0094#.XXbM2ChKi70  

Finlayson, C. M., et al. "The second warning to humanity–providing a context for wetland management and policy." Wetlands 39.1 (2019): 1-5. http://scientistswarning.forestry.oregonstate.edu/sites/sw/files/Finlayson%20et%20al%202018.%20Second%20warning%20to%20humanity%20-%20a%20context%20for%20wetland....pdf

Gardner, Charlie J., and Claire FR Wordley. "Scientists must act on our own warnings to humanity." Nature Ecology & Evolution 3.9 (2019): 1271-1272.  https://www.nature.com/articles/s41559-019-0979-y

Hulme, Mike. Why we disagree about climate change: Understanding controversy, inaction and opportunity. Cambridge University Press, 2009. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/261948558_Why_We_Disagree_About_Climate_Change_Understanding_Controversy_Inaction_and_Opportunity

Langin, Katie. “Why some climate scientists are saying no to flying.” Science. American Association for the Advancement of Science. 13 May 2019. Web. 5 May 2020. https://www.sciencemag.org/careers/2019/05/why-some-climate-scientists-are-saying-no-flying.

McKibben, Bill. Falter: has the human game begun to play itself out?. Hachette UK, 2019. https://us.macmillan.com/books/9781250178268

Mammola, Stefano, et al. "Scientists' warning on the conservation of subterranean ecosystems." BioScience 69.8 (2019): 641-650. https://academic.oup.com/bioscience/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/biosci/biz064/5519083?redirectedFrom=fulltext

O'Brien, Kevin James. The violence of climate change: Lessons of resistance from nonviolent activists. Georgetown University Press, 2017. https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt1qft25x

“Onlinestreik am 24 April.”  Klimastreik. NaturFreunde Berlin. 24 April 2019,  https://www.klima-streik.org

“Resources.” NO FLY Climate Sci, No Fly Climate Sci,  2018, https://noflyclimatesci.org/resources.   

Rich, Nathaniel. "Losing earth: The decade we almost stopped climate change." New York Times Magazine 1 (2018). https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2018/08/01/magazine/climate-change-losing-earth.html

Ripple, William J., et al. "World scientists’ warning of a climate emergency." BioScience (2019).https://academic.oup.com/bioscience/article/70/1/8/5610806

“School strike for climate.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation Inc.,  4 May 2020,  Web. 16 May 2020. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/School_strike_for_climate.

Sueur, Jérôme, Bernie Krause, and Almo Farina. "Climate Change Is Breaking Earth’s Beat." Trends in ecology & evolution 34.11 (2019): 971-973. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169534719302265

Wallace-Wells, David. The uninhabitable earth: Life after warming. Tim Duggan Books, 2020. https://www.penguinrandomhouse.com/books/586541/the-uninhabitable-earth-by-david-wallace-wells/

“Welcome.” NO FLY Climate Sci, No Fly Climate Sci,  2018, https://noflyclimatesci.org.https://www.ipcc.ch/sr15/


Amodio, Joseph V. “20 Minutes With: Cyrill Gutsch of Parley for the Oceans.” Penta. 8 April 2019. Dow Jones & Company, Inc. 16 May 2020. https://www.barrons.com/articles/20-minutes-with-cyrill-gutsch-of-parley-for-the-oceans-01554752089

“For the Oceans.” Parley. Parley for the Oceans. Web. 15 May 2020. https://www.parley.tv/#fortheoceans

Olson, Mancur. The Logic of Collective Action: Public Goods and the Theory of Groups, Second Printing with a New Preface and Appendix. Vol. 124. Harvard University Press, 2009. https://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog.php?isbn=9780674537514


“The Brewing Problem of the ‘To Go’ Coffee Cup.” The Zero Waste Canada Blog. Zero Waste Canada. 20 September 2017. Web. 1 May 2020. https://zerowastecanada.ca/the-brewing-problem-of-the-to-go-coffee-cup/

“FAQ.” BOU Twitter Conferences.  British Ornithologists' Union. October 2018. Web. 4 May 2020. https://bou.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/TC-FAQs.pdf

Hasan, Mejs. “New University Rules Encourage Scientists to Avoid Air Travel.” Wired. Condé Nast. 3 July 2018. Web. 4 May 2020. https://www.wired.com/story/climate-scientists-take-the-train/

Kellogg, Kathryn. ”10 Tips for Throwing a Large Zero Waste Event.” Going Zero Waste. Mediavine Food. 15 February 2019.  Web 5 May 2020. https://goingzerowaste.com/blog/10-tips-for-throwing-a-large-zero-waste-event/

Kier-Byfield, Sophia. “As an academic, should I worry about my conference carbon footprint?” The Guardian. Guardian News & Media Limited. 11 June 2019. Web. 4 May 2020. https://www.theguardian.com/education/2019/jun/11/as-academics-should-we-worry-about-our-conference-carbon-footprint

Olson, Isaac. “Leave a $5 deposit, get a reusable coffee cup.” CBC. CBC/Radio-Canada. 4 May 2019. Web. 5 May 2020. https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/montreal/la-tasse-reusable-coffee-cups-quebec-1.5116342

“Plogging: an eco-friendly fitness mashup of jogging and picking up trash.” Jogging and Picking up litter come together in ‘plogging’  CBC News. CBC/Radio-Canada. 27 March 2018. Web. 5 May 2020. https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/calgary/plogging-jogging-trash-pick-up-1.4594739

Pramanik, Malabika. “We Have to Stop Meeting LIke This: The Climate Cost of Conferences.” The Tyee. The Tyee. 22 July 2019. Web. 10 May 2020.  https://thetyee.ca/Analysis/2019/07/22/Climate-Cost-Conferences/

“Promotion of making traditional pottery making practices in Eastern Kenya”  Intangible Cultural Heritage. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. 14 September 2016. Web. 4 May 2020. https://ich.unesco.org/en/assistances/promotion-of-traditional-pottery-making-practices-in-eastern-kenya-01021   

“Quebec’s Green Party proposes deposit system for reusable ‘to-go’ coffee cups.” CBC. CBC/Radio-Canada. 7 August 2018. Web. 4 May. 2020 https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/montreal/reusable-coffee-cups-green-party-1.4776056

“Shade Coffee is for the Birds: But even in the Ethiopian home of Arabica, forests are needed too.” University of Utah News. University of Utah, 5 February 2015. Web. 1 May 2020. https://archive.unews.utah.edu/news_releases/shade-coffee-is-for-the-birds/

“The Third World Circular Economy Forum 3-4 June 2019.” WCEF Bulletin 208.36.  International Institute for Sustainable Development. 7 June 2019. https://www.economiecirculaire.org/articles/h/download-the-wcef2019-summary-world-circular-economy-forum-2019.html


“About.” atree,org. Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment. 2019. Web. 1 April 2020. https://www.atree.org/about

Callaghan, Corey T., et al. “Unnatural history: is a paradigm shift of natural history in 21st century ornithology needed?” Ibis 160.2 (2018): 475-480. https://doi.org/10.1111/ibi.12555

Dattatri, Shekar. “The Race to Save the Amur Falcon.” YouTube. 17 April 2017. Video. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d6fM4wrilJo

“Invasive Species Strategy for British Columbia.” Invasive Species Council of BC, 2017.  https://www.bcinvasives.ca/documents/Invasive_Species_Strategy_for_BC-2018-180117-WEB.pdf

Ogada, Modecai. “The need for ‘Human Rigour’ in Wildlife Conservation Study.” YouTube.  Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment. 18 October 2019. Video. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GHkJ1j4hbdM

“Young people taking action for conservation.” ACT!ON For Conservation. Action for Conversation, 2019. Web. 15 May 2020.   https://www.actionforconservation.org/


Brisson-Curadeau, Émile, et al. "Seabird species vary in behavioural response to drone census." Scientific Reports7.1 (2017): 1-9. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-18202-3

Canal, David, et al. "Decoration increases the conspicuousness of raptor nests." PloS one 11.7 (2016): e0157440. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4959696/

Canal, David, and Juan José Negro. "Use of drones for research and conservation of birds of prey." Birds of Prey. Springer, Cham, 2018. 325-337. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/326086369_Use_of_Drones_for_Research_and_Conservation_of_Birds_of_Prey

Chabot, Dominique, and David M. Bird. "Small unmanned aircraft: precise and convenient new tools for surveying wetlands." Journal of Unmanned Vehicle Systems 1.01 (2013): 15-24. https://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/abs/10.1139/juvs-2013-0014#.XwkRrS0ZNZ1

Chabot, Dominique, and David M. Bird. "Wildlife research and management methods in the 21st century: Where do unmanned aircraft fit in?." Journal of Unmanned Vehicle Systems 3.4 (2015): 137-155. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/283284133_Wildlife_research_and_management_methods_in_the_21st_century_Where_do_unmanned_aircraft_fit_in

Desrochers, André, et al. "Estimating wildlife tag location errors from a vhf receiver mounted on a drone." Drones2.4 (2018): 44. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/329558829_Estimating_Wildlife_Tag_Location_Errors_from_a_VHF_Receiver_Mounted_on_a_Drone

Dwyer, James F., Daryl D. Austin, and Chelsea Beebe. "Unmanned aircraft systems enable three-dimensional viewshed-based assessment of potential disturbance to nesting raptors by recreational rock climbing." Journal of Unmanned Vehicle Systems 8.1 (2019): 11-18. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/336860104_Unmanned_aircraft_systems_enable_three-dimensional_viewshed-based_assessment_of_potential_disturbance_to_nesting_raptors_by_recreational_rock_climbing

Junda, James, Erick Greene, and David M. Bird. "Proper flight technique for using a small rotary-winged drone aircraft to safely, quickly, and accurately survey raptor nests." Journal of Unmanned Vehicle Systems3.4 (2015): 222-236. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/282840088_Proper_flight_technique_for_using_a_small_rotary-winged_drone_aircraft_to_safely_quickly_and_accurately_survey_raptor_nests

Junda, James H., et al. "Nest defense behaviour of four raptor species (osprey, bald eagle, ferruginous hawk, and red-tailed hawk) to a novel aerial intruder–a small rotary-winged drone." Journal of Unmanned Vehicle Systems 4.4 (2016): 217-227. https://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/abs/10.1139/juvs-2016-0004?journalCode=juvs#.X0Jaii2w1By

Mulero-Pázmány, Margarita, et al. "Unmanned aircraft systems as a new source of disturbance for wildlife: A systematic review." PloS one 12.6 (2017): e0178448. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article%3Fid%3D10.1371/journal.pone.0178448

Neate, Rupert. “Drone deliveries soar in rural Scotland during coronavirus outbreak.” The Guardian. Guardian News. 29 May 2020 Web. 10 July 2020. https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2020/may/29/drone-deliveries-soar-in-rural-scotland-during-coronavirus-outbreak?CMP=Share_iOSApp_Other

Nuttall, Thomas. “Dr. David M. Bird – Can Drones Help Our Bird Populations?” Nuttall Ornithological Club. NUTTALL ORNIGHOLOGICAL CLUB. 4 November 2019.


Patterson, Charla, et al. "Evaluation of an unmanned aircraft system for detecting surrogate caribou targets in Labrador." Journal of Unmanned Vehicle Systems 4.1 (2015): 53-69. https://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/abs/10.1139/juvs-2015-0014?mobileUi=0&journalCode=juvs#.XwkTfi0ZNZ0

Paul, Ellen. "Thinking of using SUA to study birds in the U.S.? Read this first!” Ornithology Exchange. 24 January 2019. Web. 20 July 2020. https://ornithologyexchange.org/articles/community/thinking-of-using-sua-to-study-birds-in-the-us-read-this-first-r260/

Paul, Ellen. "Summary of literature reporting use of drones to study birds.” Guidelines to the Use of Wild Birds in Research 2018 Supplement.  Ornithological Council. 2018. Web.  20 July 2020.(note: this summary is from 2018 and will be updated) https://birdnet.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/Drones-OCGuidelines.pdf

Potapov, E. R., et al. "Usage of UAV for Surveying Steller's Sea Eagle Nests." Raptors Conservation 27 (2013). https://www.researchgate.net/publication/260986024_Usage_of_UAV_for_Surveying_Steller%27s_Sea_Eagle_Nests_PRIMENENIE_BESPILOTNIKOV_DLA_OSMOTRA_GNEZD_BELOPLECEGO_ORLANA

Tremblay, Junior A., et al. "A low-cost technique for radio-tracking wildlife using a small standard unmanned aerial vehicle." Journal of Unmanned Vehicle Systems 5.3 (2017): 102-108.



Frank, Robert H. The economic naturalistès field guide: common sense principles for troubled times. Basic Books (AZ), 2009. https://www.basicbooks.com/titles/robert-h-frank/the-economic-naturalists-field-guide/9780786744404/

Gillingham, Kenneth. “William Nordhaus and the Costs of Climate Change.”   VOX CEPR Policy Portal. Latin American and Caribbean Economics Association (LACEA). 19 October 2018. Web. 12 May 2020.https://voxeu.org/article/william-nordhaus-and-costs-climate-change

Jaccard, Mark. The Citizen's Guide to Climate Success: Overcoming Myths that Hinder Progress. Cambridge University Press, 2020. https://www.cambridge.org/core/books/citizens-guide-to-climate-success/49D99FBCBD6FCACD5F3D58A7ED80882D

Kumar, Pushpam, ed. The economics of ecosystems and biodiversity: ecological and economic foundations. UNEP/Earthprint, 2010. http://www.teebweb.org/our-publications/teeb-study-reports/ecological-and-economic-foundations/

OECD. “Biodiversity: Finance and the Economic and Business Case for Action.” OECD Publishing, 2019. 


Pittis, Don. “Greta Thunberg was right: There is an alternative to ‘eternal economic growth.” CBC. CBC/Radio-Canada. 26 September 2019. Web. 12 May 2020. https://www.cbc.ca/news/business/business-climate-strike-1.5293916

Ridley, Matt. “The Rational optimist: How prosperity evolves.” Brock Education: A Journal of Educational Research and Practice 21.2 (2012). https://doi.org/10.26522/brocked.v21i2.280

Environmental Footprints

AFP. “Internet’s environmental footprints on green earth.” Global Village Space. Global Village Space. Web. 15 May 2020. https://www.globalvillagespace.com/internets-environmental-footprints-on-green-earth/

Clark, D. & Berners-Lee, M.  What’s the carbon footprint of … the internet?” The Guardian. Guardian News & Media Limited. 12 August 2010. Web. 5 May. 2020. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2010/aug/12/carbon-footprint-internet

Fahrenkamp-Uppenbrink, Julia.  “Freightened: The Real Price of Shipping.” Book and media reviews from the journal Science. American Association for the Advancement of Science. 1 May, 2017. Web. 1 April 2020. https://blogs.sciencemag.org/books/2017/05/01/freightened-the-real-price-of-shipping/

“Global Warming of 1.5 ºC.” Special Report. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change,  2018.https://www.ipcc.ch/sr15/

“How Ecological Footprint accounting helps us recognize that engaging in meaningful climate action is critical for our own success.” Blog. Global Footprint Network.  9 November 2017. Web.  420 April 2020. https://www.footprintnetwork.org/2017/11/09/ecological-footprint-climate-change/

“Infographic: The carbon footprint of the internet.” Carboncare. ClimateCare Oxford Limited.  13 April 2015. Web. 30 April 2020.  https://climatecare.org/infographic-the-carbon-footprint-of-the-internet/

“Oceans Plastic Charter.” C7 2018 Charlevoix. Government of Canada. 9 June 2018. https://www.international.gc.ca/world-monde/assets/pdfs/international_relations-relations_internationales/g7/2018-06-09-healthy_oceans-sante_oceans-annex-en.pdf

Naraghi, Alireza. “This Ontario town is trying to be Canada’s first carbon-neutral community.” Maclean’s. St. Joseph Communications. 23 July 2019. Web. 4 May 2020.


Ripple, William J., et al. "World scientists’ warning to humanity: A second notice." BioScience 67.12 (2017): 1026-1028.Union of Concerned Scientists (1997). World Scientists’ Warning to Humanity. https://doi.org/10.1093/biosci/bix125


“The Birdwatchers’ code.” Watching Birds. The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds,  2020. Web. 15 May, 2020. https://www.rspb.org.uk/birds-and-wildlife/wildlife-guides/birdwatching/the-birdwatchers-code/  

“Code of Conduct.” Nature Photographers Network. Nature Photographers Network, 2020. Web, 15 May 2020.  https://naturephotographers.network/code-of-conduct/

“Code of Ethics.” WSO. Wisconsin Society for Ornithology. 2020. Web. 15 May 2020. https://wsobirds.org/about-wso/code-of-ethics

“Code of Professional Conduct.” Governance. American Ornithological Society,  2020. https://americanornithology.org/about/governance/code-of-professional-conduct/

“Diversity Statement.” Governance. American Ornithological Society,  Mar 2015.  https://americanornithology.org/about/governance/diversity-statement/

O'Brien, Kevin J. An ethics of biodiversity: Christianity, ecology, and the variety of life. Georgetown University Press, 2010.

“Non-Discrimination Policy.” Governance. American Ornithological Society,  Mar 2015. https://americanornithology.org/about/governance/non-discrimination-policy/

“NRS Code of Conduct.” Nest Record Scheme. British Trust for Ornithology, 2019. https://www.bto.org/our-science/projects/nrs/coc

“PSG Code of Conduct.” Code of Conduct. Pacific Seabird Group. 19 December 2019. Web. 15 May 2020. https://pacificseabirdgroup.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/01/PSG_CodeOfConduct_v5.2_20191220.pdf

“Social Media & Commenting Policy.” Governance. American Ornithological Society,  2020. https://americanornithology.org/about/governance/social-media-policy/

“VSO's Principles of Birding Ethics.” VSO. Virginia Society of Ornithology. May 2018. Web. 30 April, 2020. https://www.virginiabirds.org/publications/birding-ethics


Kolbert, Elizabeth. The sixth extinction: An unnatural history. A&C Black, 2014. https://books.google.ca/books?id=wlnCAwAAQBAJ&lpg=PA1&ots=hqDvCkHVmn&dq=The%20sixth%20extinction%3A%20An%20unnatural%20history&lr&pg=PA1#v=onepage&q=The%20sixth%20extinction:%20An%20unnatural%20history&f=false


“Agents of Change: The Winter ’19 Campaign.” Stella’s World. Stella McCartney Ltd. 24 July 2019.   Web. 1 May 2020. https://www.stellamccartney.com/experience/us/agents-of-change-the-winter-19-campaign/

Franklin-Wallis, Oliver. “Stella McCartney is on a quest to save you from the fashion industry.” Wired Magazine. Condé Nast Publications,  6 December 2018. Web. 30 April 2020. https://www.wired.co.uk/article/stella-mccartney-sustainable-fashion

Flying and carbon footprints

Kjellman, Sofia E. "As a climate researcher, should I change my air-travel habits?." Nature 571.7766 (2019). https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-01652-2

Williams, David Samuel. “How those researching adaptation to climate change might reduce their own carbon footprints.” Nature Careers Community. Springer Nature Ltd. 16 September 2019.          https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-02778-z?utm_source=Nature+Briefing&utm_campaign=3cf3af98e0-briefing-dy-20190918&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_c9dfd39373-3cf3af98e0-43322213

Human and Bird Interactions

Dobrovic, Joan. “A Chip on her shoulder.” Cleveland.com. Advance Local Media. 27 June, 2019. Web. 15 May 2020.


Perrie, Robin. “BUDGIE SMUGGLERS Elderly couple heartbroken after brazen burglars steal their beloved budgies.” The Sun. News Group Newspapers Limited. 1 July 2019. Web. 11 May 2020. https://www.thesun.co.uk/news/9414352/burglars-stole-beloved-budgies/

Human Overabundance

“About Us.” PopulationConnection.org. Population Connection, 2020. Web 15 May 2020.  https://www.populationconnection.org/us/

Büscher, Bram, and Robert Fletcher. "Why EO Wilson is wrong about how to save the Earth." Aeon. Aeon Media Group Ltd. 1 Mar 2016. Web 1 Mar 2020.  https://aeon.co/ideas/why-e-o-wilson-is-wrong-about-how-to-save-the-earth

“Human Population Growth and Extinction.” Extinction. Centre for Biological Diversity. 2019. Web. 20 15 April 2020. https://www.biologicaldiversity.org/programs/population_and_sustainability/extinction/

Korten, David. “A 21st Century Economics for the People of a Living Earth (Version 3).” Living Economies Archive. Living Economies Forum, 2 July 2019. https://davidkorten.org/a-21st-century-economics-for-the-people-of-a-living-earth-version-3/

Krauss, A., Kastning, T. “Klimawandel: Stoppt das Bevölkerungswachstum!” GEO. Gruner + Jahr. 15 November 2016. https://www.geo.de/natur/nachhaltigkeit/15196-rtkl-klimawandel-stoppt-das-bevoelkerungswachstum

McKie, Robin. “Half-Earth: Our Planet’s Fight for Life by Edward O Wilson - review.” The Guardian. Guardian News & Media Limited. 11 April 2016. Web. May 5 2020. https://www.theguardian.com/books/2016/apr/11/half-earth-planets-fight-for-life-edward-o-wilson-review

Roberts, David. “I’m an environmental journalist, but I never write about overpopulation. Here’s why.Since you asked (many times).” Vox. Vox Media. 29 November 2018. Web 10 May 2019. https://www.vox.com/energy-and-environment/2017/9/26/16356524/the-population-question

Roser M., Ritchie H., & Ortiz-Ospina, E. “World Population Growth.” Our World in Data. All of Our World in Data. 2013. Revision May 2019. Web. 10 May 2020. https://ourworldindata.org/world-population-growth

Seal, A. “I Was Determined to Not Have Kids. Then I Heard Wajahat Ali Speak.” The Tyee. 7 May 2019. Web. 10 May 2020. https://thetyee.ca/Analysis/2019/05/07/Kids-No-Kids/

Starkey, Marian. “E. O. Wilson: Runaway population growth at epicenter of environmental problems.” Church and State. Network for Church Monitoring. June 2019. Web. 30 April 2020.    http://churchandstate.org.uk/2019/06/e-o-wilson-runaway-population-growth-at-epicenter-of-environmental-problems/,

Wolf, Achim. “Overpopulation | Explanation & solution.” Petition Update.  Change.org, PBC. 25 October 2018. Web. 1 May 2020. https://www.change.org/p/weltweite-geburtenregelungen-verbindlich-einf%C3%BChren-introduce-obligatory-worldwide-birth-controls/u/23477093

Wolf, Achim. “Überbevölkerung stoppen - Katastrophen abwenden! Stop overpopulation - avert catastrophes! “ Change.org, PBC. 2019. Web. 1 May 2020/ https://www.change.org/p/f%C3%BChren-sie-weltweite-geburtenregelungen-ein-introduce-worldwide-birth-regulations

“World Population by year.” Worldometer Worldometers Info. 2020. Web. 15 May 2020. https://www.worldometers.info/world-population/world-population-by-year/


“Unity in Biocultural Diversity.” Terralingua.org.  Terralingua. 2020. Web. https://terralingua.org   

Monetization of Nature

Andersson, Tommy D., and Erik Lundberg. "Commensurability and sustainability: Triple impact assessments of a tourism event." Tourism management 37 (2013): 99-109.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261517713000034

Homberger, D.G. (2015) – Understanding Other Species' Needs: The Monetization of Nature -- Self-Restraint and a Global Rationing System of Natural Resources as an Antidote. Chapter 5.  Pp. 91-139 in Ecopsychology: Advances from the Intersection of Psychology and Environmental Protection. Volume I: Science and Theory (R.B. Hamilton & D.G. Nemeth, eds.). Praeger, Santa Barbara, CA. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/282366912_Homberger_DG_2015_The_Monetization_of_Nature_Self-Restraint_and_a_Global_Rationing_System_of_Natural_Resources_as_an_Antidote_Chapter_5_in_Ecopsychology_Advances_from_the_Intersection_of_Psychology_an


Assembly, General. Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for sustainable development, United Nations, New York. Resolution A/RES/70/1, 25 September 2015. Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda September 2015 – United Nations General Assembly. http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/70/1&Lang=E


Emanuel, Kerry.  Divine wind: the history and science of hurricanes. Oxford university press, 2005.https://global.oup.com/academic/product/divine-wind-9780195149418

Oreskes, Naomi. Why trust science? Princeton University Press, 2019. https://press.princeton.edu/books/paperback/9780691212265/why-trust-science


“Arena of the Future.” Sports Illustrated, 12 (2007). https://www.si.com/vault/2007/03/12/8402408/arena-of-the-future

 Bernard, Enrico, and Felipe PL Melo. "Fuleco™ revisited: Football, conservation and lessons learned from the 2014 FIFA World Cup." Biotropica 51.4 (2019): 473-476. https://rdcu.be/bJXGC

Wolff, Alexander. "Sports and global warming: as the planet changes, so do the games we play–time to pay attention." Sports Illustrated 12 (2007): 36-45. https://www.si.com/vault/issue/729840/0

Wolff, A. "Going, going green, as global warming changes the planet, it is changing the sports world: To counter the looming environmental crisis, surprising and innovative ideas are already helping sports adapt." Sports Illustrated, 12 (2007). https://www.si.com/vault/2007/03/12/8402407/going-going-green